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Full text of "Galeni Pergamensis De temperamentis : et De inaequali intemperie libri tres, Thomas Linacro Anglo interprete. Opus non medicis modo, sed et philosophis oppido q[uam] necessariu[m] nunc primum prodit in lucem cum gratia & priuilegio. Impressum apud praeclaram Cantabrigiam per Joannem Siberch, anno MDXXI"

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Opus non medicis modo, fed et philofophis oppido $ neceffariu 
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Impreffum apud praeclaram Cantabrigiam per Joannem Siberch, 
anno MDXXi. 

Reproduced iii exa^ Facfimile 





% Printed by C. J. Clay, M.A. Priiiter to tJie Univerfity of Cambr-, 
for Alexander Macmillan and Robert Bowes, Bookfellers 
No. I Trinity Sti-eet, over againft Saint Ma7y's Chtirch 



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The present reproduction of Linacre's translation of two treatises 
by Galen is issued as a specimen of early typography, being the 
sixth in order of the seven books printed by John Siberch, the first 
Cambridge printer, in 1521. Besides these seven, one appeared in 
1522, after which date no book is known to have been printed in 
Cambridge till 1584. The books printed by Siberch are all very 
scarce ; of one but a single copy is known, and of three of the books 
there is not a single specimen in Cambridge. In 1878, the publishers 
of the preseht volume proposed to issue the whole of the eight books, 
and the following are now ready, and will shortly be published : 

1. Bullock, Henry. Oratio habita Cantabrigiae. 152 1. 

2. Cujufdam fidelis Chriftiani Epiftola ad Chriftianos omnes. Subfequitur 

et Divi Auguftini de miferia. . .vitas fermo. 1521. 
8. Papyrii Gemini Eleatis Hermathena, feu de Eloquentiae vidloria. 1522. 

Mr Bradshaw, University Librarian, has compared the eight books 
side by side, and has thus been able to determine their relative order. 
He kindly allows his notes to be printed, and they will be issued 
with the ftrst of the above three volumes. 


The Publishers are desirous of gaining information about the 
printer, John Siberch, before 1521, when he commenced to print in 
Cambridge, and after 1522 when he discontinued printing there. 
Herbert suggests that he may be the John Sibert, who was printing 
at Lyons in 1498, and mentions a book of that date being in the 
Cambridge University Library. But this book, Henrici Bouhic Dis- 
tinctiones super hbros quinque Decretalium, consists of two large 
folio volumes, and the printer calls himself ^ Magister Johannes 
Siberti;' both of which facts make it unreasonable to identify him 
with the plain Johannes Siberch who printed little books at Cambridge 
80 many years afterwards, 

Cambridge, July i, i88i. 


HOMAS LINACRE, known to his contemporaries 
as one of the most learned scholars of an epoch 
when learning was highly prized, but in after times 
chiefly as the founder of the College of Physicians in 
London, was born at Canterbury, probably about the year 1460. 
Of his parentage and descent nothing certain is known, though 
some of his biographers have assumed, apparently without 
any evidence except the name, that he was connected with 
the family of Linacre in Derbyshire. It is clear from a 
passage in Linacre's will that he had a brother, sisters, and 
other relatives (the brother strange to say, bearing the same 
baptismal name — Thomas) but further the family history can- 
not be traced. 

This fact will appear less surprising, if we remember that 
Linacre Hke many scholars of his time, was never married, 
and Hved for many years an almost monastic Hfe, Httle 
influenced by family or social ties. More important than his 
descent was his education, and in this Linacre was unusuaHy 
happy; for not a Httle of the success and eminence of his 


after life may be traced to the bias which the young scholar's 
mind received from his earhest teacher. The Cathedral 
school 6f Canterbury within the monastery of Christ Church 
where Linacre became a pupil was at that time under the 
direction of Wilham Tilly, otherwise called WilHam of SelHng, 
an Augustinian monk, and a scholar of a type at that time 
rare in England, Originally educated at Oxford, elected a 
Fellow of the newly founded College of AU Souls, and after- 
wards received as a monk in the Monastery of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, Selling found the means to travel in Italy, where 
he not only studied the Canon Law, but, what is more to the 
present purpose, during a stay at Bologna, studied Greek 
and became the pupil of Angelo PoHtiano. After two years' 
stay in Italy, he returned home, became Prior of Christ 
Church, and later on was sent as Envoy from Henry VII. to 
the papal court; an event which proved of great importance to 
Linacre. At the time of which we are now speaking, he was 
only Master of the Grammar School, whether appointed before 
or after his first journey to Italy we do not know. In any 
case it is clear that he had already those tastes and pursuits 
from which his pupil Linacre derived not only his determining 
impulse to the Hfe of a scholar, but especiaHy that love of 
Greek Hterature which runs Hke a thread through the great 
physician's Hfe and is the clue to much of his versatile Hterary 

At the mature age (especiaHy according to the customs of 
the day) of twenty, Linacre was sent to Oxford. At what 
CoHege or HaH he studied is uncertain, though it is assumed, 
on trivial grounds that he must have entered at Canterbury 
HaH. The only fact which is certain is that after four years' 
residence at the University, in 1484, he was elected a feHow 
of AH Souls' CoHege. It has been thought by Dr Noble 


Johnson, the best blographer of Linacre, that this election 
must have implied relationship to Archbishop Chichele, the 
founder, and thus also to SeUing, assuming- that the latter owed 
his preferment also to family connexions. But the entry in 
the College books (which though not contemporary is a copy 
thought to have been made about 1571 of the original record) 
has no indication of his being of founders kin. It is simply 
"Thomas Lynaker, medicus insignis!' The omission to specify 
kinship to the founder is regarded by Dr Leighton the 
present Warden of All Souls (he was himself good enough 
to inform me) as decisive that no such kinship existed, and 
the supposition of any family tie between Linacre and 
Chichele or SelHng must therefore be regarded as entirely 

The time of Linacre's residence at Oxford was one of 
much moment in the history of the University, already stirred 
by the earHest movements of the revival of learning. The 
first Oxford printing press was already issuing those few 
volumes, now become so rare, which must have been of 
startling interest to the world of scholars. The study of the 
new learning, Greek, had been introduced by Corneho VitaH, 
an ItaHan, said to have been the first teacher of that language 
in England, and it is stated that Linacre became his pupil. At 
the same time he doubtless formed the acquaintance of two 
scholars who shared his devotion to the *new learning,' 
WiHiam Grocyn and WiHiam Latimer, the former of whom 
survived to form part, with Linacre himself, of the briHiant 
circle of Oxford scholars, who a few years later excited the 
admiration of Erasmus. 

But Linacre was soon to have the privilege which he 
must have long coveted, of perfecting his knowledge of 
Greek at what was then the fountain-head of that learning. 


in the schools of Italy. The opportunity came through his 
old friend and teacher, William of SelHng, who was sent by 
Henry the Seventh as his envoy to the Papal Court. It is 
not clear that Linacre had any official position in the embassy ; 
he accompanied his patron however, as far as Bologna, but 
not in his further journey to Rome. At Bologna Linacre 
is stated by Leland to have been introduced to Angelo 
Politiano, and to have remained there in order to become a 
pupil of this great scholar. His stay in Bologna appears 
to have been short, and we next hear of him at Florence, 
having perhaps followed thither PoHtiano, who along with 
Demetrius Chalcondylas had now been charged with the 
instruction of the two sons of Lorenzo de Medici, Piero and 
Giovanni. Linacre seems to have been favoured with the 
patronage of Lorenzo, who allowed him to share the in- 
structions given to the young princes. It is not easy to 
understand precisely what was the position Linacre now 
occupied at the Court of Florence, for though his fellow 
pupils were boys and he himself a man of twenty-five and 
already a considerable scholar, he is not spoken of as in any 
sense their tutor. The connexion however must have been 
in after years valuable to him, as the dedication of the work 
now reprinted clearly shews : the pope Leo the Tenth, being 
the younger of the two Medici princes. It will be evident 
from the dedication itself that the privilege accorded to 
Linacre was shared by others, and it was therefore perhaps 
not so important as it has been regarded. It is enough to 
know that he studied under such eminent scholars as PoHtiano 
and Chalcondylas, and thus laid the foundation of the elegance 
in Latin scholarship and profundity in Greek learning for 
which he was afterwards distinguished. 

After a year thus spent in Florence, Linacre proceeded to 


Rome, where his studies m the Vatican Hbrary procured him 
the acquaintance of another great scholar, Hermolaus Barba- 
rus. It is possible that this acquaintance may have given 
Linacre's studies a bias in the direction of medicine ; for Bar- 
barus, though not a physician, had devoted himself specially 
to the study of Dioscorides, whose works he translated into 
Latin, and illustrated with commentaries, more than once re- 
printed, It is suggested by Dr Noble Johnson that the example 
and arguments of Hermolaus Barbarus may have given Lin- 
acre's mind a bias of a different kind, namely towards a single 
life ; for the ItaHan scholar, we are told, wrote a treatise in 
favour of ceHbacy at the age of eighteen, and never after- 
wards deviated either in practice or theory from the principles 
there advocated. Barbarus was also a great Aristotehan 
scholar, and in this direction also he may have influenced the 
mind of Linacre ; who afterwards undertook and partly car- 
ried out a plan which had also been among the projects of the 
elder scholar, of a complete translation of the works of Aris- 
totle. In other less important matters, the influence of Her- 
molaus Barbarus seems traceable, and if Linacre took as his 
model in a learned Hfe any of the great scholars with whom 
he studied, it was certainly rather Hermolaus than any 

From Rome Linacre went to Venice, and here made the 
valuable acquaintance of the great printer, Aldus Manutius 
Romanus, who was then engaged in bringing out some of the 
most important editions of the classics, by which he earned 
the gratitude of scholars. Aldus appears to have treated the 
EngHsh scholar with great kindness, which is acknowledged, 
as a personal favour, by WiHiam Grocyn, in a letter to Aldus, 
which must have been written shortly after Linacres re- 
turn from Italy. After acknowledging the kindness shewn 


to his frlend Linacre, Grocyn goes on to thank Aldus, In the 
name of English scholars especially for his editions of the 
Greek 'classics, and commends his preference for Aristotle to 
Plato. The rest of this letter, the style of which is praised by 
Erasmus, is interesting, especially as the only extant composi- 
tion, except two trifling epigrams, of this once celebrated 
scholar, but has no further reference to our subject. Aldus 
prefixed it to Linacre's translation of Proclus On the Sphere, 
printed by him in the year 1499^, In order (as he says in his 
dedication of this work to Albertus Pius, prlnce of Carpi) to 
make the Italian phllosophers ashamed of thelr bad Latln, 
and lead them to rival the Engllshmen. In the dedication 
just named Aldus pays a high comphment to Linacre's scho- 
larship, whlch may be quoted here, though written later. 
"Linacre," he says, *'has translated thls work with elegance and 

"Qul utinam et SimpHcIum in ArlstoteHs Physlca, et in 
ejusdem meteora Alexandrum quos nunc summa cura Latlnos 
facit, ad me dedisset, ut et illos una cum Proclo ad te mitte- 
rem. Quanquam (ut spero) eosque et ahos in Philosophia, 
medlcinaque perutiles Hbros aliquando dabit. ut ex eadem 
Britannii unde ollm barbarse et Indoctse Hterse ad nos pro- 
fectse ItaHam occuparunt, et adhuc arces tenent, latlne et docte 
loquentes bonas artes accipiamus, ac britannlcis adjutoribus 
fugata barbarie, arces nostras recipiamus, ut eadem hasta 
sanetur a qua IHatum est vulnus." 

He also impHes that an intimate friendshlp exlsted be- 
tween Linacre and the prince of Carpi, on whlch account the 
work wiH be more welcome to his patron. 

The Aldlne editio princeps of Aristotle contains also an 
Interesting aHusion to Llnacre, which seems to shew that he had 
something to do with the editing or correcting of that great 


work. It may even not be wlthout some slgnificance that a 
splendld copy of thls editlon, printed on vellum (and as com- 
plete In this state, according to Dibdin, of the highest rarity), 
once belonged to Linacre, and is now, bearlng his autograph, 
in the hbrary of New CoUege, Oxford. In the dedication 
prefixed to the second volume of this work, Aldus boasts of 
the pains he had taken to secure a correct text, 

" Ut tum querendis optlmis et antiquis librls atque eadem 
in re multlpHcibus tum conferendls castigandisque exemplarl- 
bus qu3e dllaceranda Impressorlbus traderentur, perlrentque 
ut pariens vlpera, In manus homlnum venlrent emendatlssima. 
Id ita sit necne sunt mlhl gravisslml testes In tota fere Itah^, 
et praecipue In Venetils Thomas AngHcus, homo et grsece et 
latine peritlsslmus prsecellensque In doctrlnarum omnlum dls- 

Thls volume Is dated February, 1497, the first volume 
1495, dates which are qulte reconcilable with the time when 
Llnacre is beHeved to have been at Venlce. 

On leavlng Venlce, Linacre went to Padua and probably 
made some stay there : slnce It was here that he graduated 
as Doctor of Medicine, and here he must have acqulred the 
greatest part of his medlcal knowledge. Padua was at that 
time one of the chief seats of medlcal knowledge In Europe, 
and became shortly afterwards one of the first schools of 
anatomy. Its reputation in both departments was long pre- 
served under the enHghtened patronage of the Venetian 
Senate. Many students from Northern Europe naturahy 
flocked thither, and among them a few from England and 
Scotland. Linacre was not the first emlnent EngHsh scholar 
who graduated In medicine at Padua; the once celebrated 
Phreas [WeHs], who left BaUIol for Italy, and died at Rome, 
havlng preceded him by half a century or more ; but he was 


followed by a long roll of English and Scottish students the 
names and escutcheons of some of whom may still be seen 
in the gallery of the University quadrangle. 

Though Linacre is said to have taken the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine with great distinction, there is no founda- 
tion for the assertion that he was ever Professor of Medicine 
in the University. The story rests on an obvious confusion 
of the titles of Doctor and Professor which were then 
and long afterwards equivalent and interchangeable in the 
European Universities. 

The tradition of Linacre's successful disputation at Padua 
is preserved in a dialogue by Richard Pacey (quoted in 
Johnson's Hfe) where Grammar and Rhetoric are made to 
dispute as to the respective merits of Theodore Gaza and 
Thomas Linacre. Grammar first claims Linacre as her own, 
Rhetoric contends that he was by right her son, and that 
Grammar was only the occupation of his leisure moments. 
On one occasion (says Rhetoric) he condescended to dispute 
with some Grammarian on certain minutiae connected with 
the vocative case, but gained a more brilHant victory when 
he defended his theses for graduation at Padua, " Nam quum 
in gymnasio Patavino, professionis artis medicae ei (ut nunc 
moris est) darentur insignia, pubHce non sine summa laude 
disputavit, et seniorum medicorum adversaria argumenta accu- 
ratissime refehit"^. 

Linacre's route after leaving Padua, may, Dr Johnson 
tehs us, be accurately and precisely traced through Vicenza, 
Verona, Brescia, Bergamo and Milan ; but the authority for 
this statement is not given. It may however be permissible 
to delay for a moment at Vicenza, since it is pretty certain 
that Linacre did pass there, and highly probable that his 
stay had some influence on his Hterary Hfe. This city was 


the home of a celebrated physician and scholar, Nicolaus 
Leonicenus, best known as the author of the earHest treatise 
on Syphihs, the fearful malady at that time beginning to be 
known ; but also celebrated for having translated several 
works of Galen from the Greek. One of these versions, 
that of the treatise De motu imcsculorum was afterwards 
pubhshed by Linacre with some of his own. Leonicenus 
was much older than Linacre (though he survived him) 
and in after years, as we know from a letter of Croke to 
Henry VI II., spoke of Linacre as his pupil^. 

The reputation of this now almost forgotten scholar was 
very high among his contemporaries. Aldus Romanus, in 
the dedication of the Aristotle already spoken of to Albertus 
Pius, Prince of Carpi, speaks of Leonicenus as ^ philoso- 
phoru-m cBtatis nostrcs medicortLmqtte facile princeps\ A 
correspondence which has been preserved between Leoni- 
cenus and Angelus PoHtianus is fuU of mutual compHments ; 
and shews that the two scholars regarded themselves as ahies 
in the common warfare against 'barbarism' a foe that had 
to be expeUed from the fields of philosophy and medicine 
as well as from that of letters ^. 

It is certain that the example of such a man could not 
have been without effect on so apt a pupil as Linacre, and 
the influence of Vicenza is clearly apparent in some of his 
later work. 

On leaving Italy, Linacre is said to have indulged in an 
antiquarian caprice which seems Httle in harmony with what 
we afterwards hear of his staid character, though in his hot 
youth and under the influence of the classical sentiment it may 
have been possible, and even natural. The story is that on 
bidding farewell to Italy at some mountain pass he indulged 
his fancy in building a cairn of stones, which he crowned with 


flowers, and dedlcated to Italy, as sancta mater stMcliorum. 
All that is known about this transaction comes from two 
Latin poems, by Janus VitaHs and by Joannes Latomus, one 
of which it may be sufficient to quote. " 


Dum Linacrus adit Morinos, patriosque Britannos, 

Artibus egregiis dives ab Italia, 
Ingentem molem saxorum in rupibus altis, 

Congerit ad fauces ante Gebenna tuas, 
Floribus hinc, viridique struem dum fronde coronat, 

Et sacer Assyrias pascitur ignis opes : 
"Hoc tibi" ait "mater studiorum, 6 sancta meorum 

Templum Linacrus dedicat, Italia ; 
Tu modo cui docta assurgunt cum Pallade Athense 

Hoc de me pretium sedulitatis habe." 

The second poem is by Joannes Latomus, and entitled 
Arnidis querela in Thomam Linacrum Anglum Italid disces- 
surtim. It represents the nymph of the Arno expostulating 
with Linacre while engaged in erecting his altar, on his fixed 
resolution to return home. It is highly laudatory, but too 
long for quotation^. 

In both copies of verses the name Gebenna occurs in 
connexion with this incident, and as this usually means, in 
classical Latin, the mountain district called the Cevennes, Dr 
Johnson concludes that Linacre before pursuing his journey 
to Paris stayed in this district. It does not seem necessary 
to suppose that he took so circuitous a route, or visited a 


part of the country which must at that time have been wild 
and Httle traversed, and where a scholar, uninfluenced by 
modern love of the picturesque can have found nothing to 
attract him, But Civitas Gebennensis is the name given, 
almost universally, by the printers of Linacre's time, to the 
city of Geneva, and Stephanus : — Dictionaritmi nomimim pi^o- 
priorum gives an interpretation apparently identical We 
can well beHeve that, in crossing the pass of the great St 
Bernard on his way down to Geneva, Linacre would not bid 
farewell to the southern side of the Alps without some ex- 
pression of emotion. But too much importance must not be 
attached to a story which probably rested only on some trifling 
incident of travel in crossing the Alps, related by Linacre 
himself in writing to his Italian friends. 

The name Morinos in the verses quoted above sufficiently 
indicates that Linacre returned home, or was expected to re- 
turn by way of Calais. He must doubtless have passed 
through Paris, but we have no record of any acquaintance- 
ship there, though certainly at a later time Linacre had Hterary 
correspondents and friends in that city. 

On his return to England Linacre seems to have resumed 
his residence in AH Souls' CoHege. His position in the Uni- 
versity must have been one of considerable eminence, since a 
knowledge of Greek was still confined to a few scholars, and 
great respect was paid to those who had acquired this new 
accompHshment in Italy. There were about this time or a 
little later but four such scholars in Oxford. Grocyn and 
Latimer were a Httle older than Linacre. Colet was younger, 
or, at least, visited Italy later, and the date of his stay in 
Florence gave his studies a somewhat different complexion 
from what we see in Linacre. It has been well pointed out 
by Mr Seebohm, in his work on the Oxford Reformers^, that 


Colet was at Florence during the agitation and enthusiasm 
aroused by the preaching of Savonarola, and doubtless derived 
from him that new spirit in theology which his after Hfe dis- 
played, and which has caused him to be reckoned among the 
precursors of the reformation. Grocyn and Linacre shew 
nothing of this. They knew Florence when the Hterary re- 
naissance was at its height, and when the spirit of the learned 
world was more pagan than Christian. We shall notice after- 
wards what bearing this had upon Linacre's literary and theo- 
logical position. 

The dissertation which the newly-returned scholar read for 
his degree in medicine is said to have attracted attention, but 
he does not seem to have taught pubhcly; — at least Grocyn 
and Latimer are the only names we hear of as pubHc lecturers 
on Greek. It was, however, Linacre's good fortune, at this 
time, to meet with a pupil whose subsequent eminence was 
enough to make his teacher distinguished, with whom he 
formed the most important Hterary friendship of his Hfe, and 
who has left us the brightest and most Hfe-Hke pictures of Lin- 
acre himself. This pupil was Erasmus, whose long-cherished 
plans of going to Italy to learn Greek were, as is weH known, 
deferred, in order that he might visit England with the same 
object. The story of Erasmus' stay in Oxford has often been 
told, though never before so fuHy and clearly as in Mr See- 
bohm's volume already referred to. It is very Hkely that he 
may have derived from Colet some of the ideas which after- 
wards influenced his Hterary and theological activity. To 
Linacre he owed, undoubtedly, the foundation of his Greek 
scholarship, and his respect for the abiHty and character of his 
teacher are shewn in many weH-known passages from his 
letters. In one of the best known he writes as foHows: "In 
Colet I hear Plato himself. Who does not admire the perfect 


compass of science in Grocyn ? What can be more acute, more 
profound, or more refined than the judgment of Linacre ?" 
There are many similar passages, and, though eulogy was the 
fashion of the age, we feel at once that, at least in speaking of 
Linacre, Erasmus meant what he said. The same impression 
mustbe derived, I think, from an amusing passage in the " En- 
comium Morise," though some of Linacre's biographers seem 
to have omitted it as if derogatory to his reputation. It is, 
however, written in a strain of good-natured banter, which 
shews that there was a foundation of good feeling and mutual 
respect between the two scholars. 

'' Novi quendam TrkvTer^oTafTov Graecum, Latinum, Ma- 
thematicum, philosophum medicum koX ravTa ^acriKiKov jam 
sexagenarium qui cseteris rebus omissis annis plus viginti se 
torquet et discruciat in Grammatica, prorsus feHcem se fore 
ratus si tamdiu Hcet vivere, donec certo statuat, quomodo dis- 
tinguendae sint octo partes orationis, quod hactenus nemo 
Grsecorum aut Latinorum ad plenum prsestare valuit. Proinde 
quasi res sit beho quoque vindicanda, si quis conjunctionem 
faciat dictionem ad adverbiorum jus pertinentem^." 

There is no record of Linacre's practice in his profession at 
Oxford. A new direction was given to his Hfe by the caU 
which he received about the year 1501 to come to court, and 
direct the studies of the young Prince Arthur. This mark of 
court favour appears to have been in some way connected 
with the visit of Prince Arthur to the University where he re- 
sided in Magdalen CoHege. The appointment lasted tiU the 
prince's death in 1503, butthe only record of it which remains 
is the Latin translation of the treatise of Proclus On the 
Sphere, dedicated to Prince Arthur, which has been already 
referred to. This was Linacre's earHest pubHshed work. 
After the prince's death Linacre appears to have stayed in 


London, and probably to have practised medicine, but there 
is no satisfactory evidence as to this period of his Hfe. 

The accession of Henry VIII. must have raised the hopes 
of Linacre, as it did those of all the scholars and enHghtened 
men in England at that time. The young king, known to be 
learned himself and a favourer of learning, was expected to 
give a powerful stimulus to the progress of the new studies. 
Erasmus was urged by his friends to return to England to 
share the prosperity and splendour of the new reign. A new 
epoch of enhghtenment was to commence, and a final blow 
was to be given to all those evils and abuses which the scho- 
lars summed up in the word barbarism. It is well known 
that these hopes were not at all, or very imperfectly, reahzed, 
but Linacre himself had no reason for disappointment. He 
was made the royal physician, a post, in those days, of great 
influence and importance in other than professional matters, as 
is shewn by a curious letter addressed to Linacre by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. From this, as from other events, it is clear 
that Linacre did not, while at court, forget his old mistress, 
learning, but used his influence as far as possible for her 
advancement. He is described by a contemporary and friend 
George Lilly, as conspicuous among the chief persons of the 
court in a purple robe and a hood of black silk^. Among 
his other patients are mentioned the great prelates Wolsey, 
Warham, and Fox. 

After some years of professional activity, and when he 
was about fifty years of age, Linacre appears to have taken 
holy orders ; or possibly at this time merely proceeded to 
priest's orders, having been previously deacon. The sim- 
plest explanation of this step is that which is given by 
himself in the dedication of his translation of Galen de Natu- 
ralibus Facultatibus to Archbishop Warham, namely, that he 


hoped to get more leisure for literary work. It is supposed 
that he prepared himself for the sacred office by entering-, in 
mature hfe, upon the study of theology, and a curious story is 
told in connexion with his first reading of the New Testa- 
ment, which, as it has been strangely misunderstood, may be 
worth giving in detail. The story rests solely on the autho- 
rity of Sir John Cheke, Professor of Greek at Cambridge, in 
his letters on the pronunciation of Greek, addressed to Bishop 
Gardiner, at that time Chancellorof the University. Cheke 
seems to have been anxious to conciHate the Bishop, and at 
the same time, for some reason or other, to depreciate Lin- 
acre. He speaks of him as a learned person and a good phy- 
sician, but one who should not venture out of his own province, 
and, he says, in power of rhetoric and popular expression 
far inferior to the episcopal correspondent to whom Chekes 
letters were addressed^*^. 

He then tells the following story. Linacre when advanced 
in life, his health broken by study and disease, and near his 
end, took the New Testament in his hand for the first time, 
(ahhough he was a priest,) and read the Gospel of St Matthew 
to the end of the /th Chapter (that is to the end of the 
Sermon on the Mount). Having read it, he threw the volume 
away with all the strength he could muster, swearing ''either 
this is not the Gospel or we are not Christians." It is pro- 
bable that the striking contrast between the teaching of the 
Sermon on the Mount and the practice of the Christian World 
has inspired many readers with the same feehng, and it will 
continue to have the same effect on many more, though they 
may not happen to give vent to their surprise with the same 
petulance. Cheke seems to argue that it shewed some scepti- 
cism in Linacre or want of respect for the Scriptures. Selden 
has misunderstood the story still more strangely, imagining 


that Linacre referred only or chiefly to the prohibition of 
swearing. But looked at without prejudice Linacres excla- 
mation seems natural enough. It is well known that the 
Scholars of the renaissance, before the time of Erasmus at 
least, were very Httle acquainted with the Scriptures in the 
original text, or even in the Latin Vulgate Version, which is 
said to have been avoided on account of its non-classical 
idioms. Now Linacre was a scholar and not a theologian. 
A theologian by profession either passes lightly over discre- 
pancies such as these or else has already found such an 
explanation of them as is possible. But the spirit of scholar- 
ship and criticism is to take words in their true meaning 
and to view ideas by uncoloured light. Linacre's remark 
needs no other explanation than that he read the passage 
with the unbiassed judgment of a scholar. 

Although it is clear that Linacre entered the Church under 
the patronage of Archbishop Warham he is said to have been 
ordained priest by the Bishop of London on Dec' 22°*^ 1520. 
The date of his entrance into deacons orders is unknown. 
It has been conjectured that he received from Pope Leo the 
Tenth, his old schoolfellow, a dispensation from the necessity 
of passing through the inferior clerical degrees, and that this 
may have been the kindness for which he expresses his grati- 
tude in the dedication of the present vokime. Be this as it 
may, he received from Warham in 1509 his first preferment 
to the Rectory of Merstham in Kent, which he resigned in a 
little more than a month from his collation. In the same year 
he received the Prebend of Easton in Gardano in the Cathe- 
dral of W^ells, and in the same year the Hving of Hawkhurst, 
in Kent, which he held till the year 1524. Further marks of 
favour were bestowed upon him in 1 5 1 7, when he was made 
Canon and Prebendary of Westminster, and in 1 5 1 8 when he 


acquired the Prebend of South Newbold in the Cathedral of 
York. He resigned the latter preferment on receiving the 
important appointment of Precentor in the same York Cathe- 
dral, but resigned this also in the same year. Two other 
benefices are recorded as having been bestowed upon him, 
the Rectory of Holworthy in Devonshire by the King, in 
15 18, and in 1520 the Rectory of Wigan, in Lancashire, on 
the title of which he received priest's orders, Dec. 22, 1520, 
and which he held till his death^^. 

There is no evidence that Linacre resided at any one 
of the benefices or Cathedral appointments which he received. 
In fact it is most probable, though not absolutely certain, that 
he continued to Hve in his London house. His biographers 
then have been somewhat puzzled to account for his accepting 
so many preferments and resigning most of them so soon. 
But it is probable that a physician and scholar did not hold 
more rigid notions respecting the evils of pluraHsm than his 
more strictly clerical contemporaries and that he saw no harm 
in holding a benefice of which he could not discharge the duty 
or only did so by deputy. The speedy resignation of a bene- 
fice is no evidence that the preferment was unprofitable. It 
is probable that in accordance with the common custom he 
resigned only in favour of a consideration paid by an aspirant 
who desired to be presented to the ofhce, and was willing 
to pay the holder to vacate it. Such a practice has lasted 
in regard to secular offices almost to our own time^^. 
Linacre must be judged not by the system which, what- 
ever its faults, gave him leisure for Hterary work and plans 
of pubHc usefulness, but by the manner in which he employed 
the wealth which these benefices placed at his disposal. It 
must have been from this source that he obtained funds for 
his munificent endowments. 


The firstfruits of his renewed hterary activity did not ap- 
pear till the year 1 5 1 7, eighteen years after his first work, when 
he pubHshed his translation into Latin of the six Books of 
Galen, De Sanitate Tuendd. This version was printed in a 
fine foHo by Rubeus, of Paris, and dedicated to Henry VIII. 
The dedication of this work shews the reverence in which 
the writings of Galen were held, a point of which we shall 
have to speak again. It is also interesting since it tells us 
that many scholars of Italy, France, and Germany, but 
especially the two great Hghts of the age, Erasmus and 
Budseus, had repeatedly urged him to pubHsh this work. 
The Preface addressed to the reader contains a great many 
Greek words, which may perhaps be the reason why the 
work was not printed in England, where no Greek type 
probably existed at this time, as wiU be seen from Siberch's 
introduction to the work now reprinted. A veHum copy of 
this book presented to Cardinal Wolsey is stiH preserved 
in the British Museum with the original letter which ac- 
companied it. Another copy presented to Bishop Fox is 
now in the Hbrary of the CoHege of Physicians, and has a 
dedicatory letter written at the beginning, but I cannot 
think it to be Linacre's own handwriting. 

Two years later appeared the translation of Galen's Me- 
thodtis Medendi, in bulk one of the greatest of his works, and 
in substance one of the most obscure. It is not now easy to 
understand the admiration and gratitude with which scholars 
received his translation. The work itself was known by name 
only to most, and perhaps on that account was the more 
respected. The judgment of Dr Johnson, Linacre's biogra- 
pher, is as foHows : — " Not less formidable in its length than 
incomprehensible in many of the theories contained in it. 
The sentence pronounced by the Mufti on the verses of the 


Turkish poet Mlssi, whose meanlng he declared to be In- 
telligible to none save to God and to him by whom they 
were composed, may wlth equal truth be appHed to the 
doctrine which this book Inculcates." This translation also 
was dedicated to Henry 8th and It Is curlous that Linacre 
speaks of it as the third work pubhshed under the protectlon 
of the Royal name, though no other Is known than that 
already mentioned, unless the alluslon be to the dedlcation 
of his translatlon of Proclus to the Klngs elder brother, 
Prince Arthur. It Is further Introduced by some com- 
mendatory verses from the pen of Janus Lascaris. It was 
beautlfully prlnted In foHo by Desiderius Maheu, at Paris, 
in 1 5 1 9. A presentation copy sent to Cardlnal Wolsey wlth 
the compHmentary letter which accompanled It Is stlH pre- 
served in the Britlsh Museum. Both the above-mentioned 
verslons have been frequently reprlnted at Parls and else- 
where, and, wlth a few aheratlons, have been accepted as the 
standard translatlons of those works of Galen. 

The next work pubHshed by Llnacre was the translatlon 
now reproduced of whlch we need not speak further at thls 
point. The dedlcation to Pope Leo the Tenth Is, as will be 
seen, Inspired by a recoHectlon of the writers early friendship 
with the great Pontlff, when they were feHow-pupIls of PoHtian 
and Chalcondylas. One passage in thls letter Is stlH obscure, 
that In whlch he refers to some recent and striklng proof of 
the Pontiff 's munlficence, shared In common with others, who 
had been also hls schoolfeHows at Florence. It has been sug- 
gested that thls act of kindness may have been some dispen- 
sation which facIHtated Linacre's entrance into Holy Orders. 
If there were any such dlspensatlon, it is more Hkely that It 
was one enabling him to hold a benefice, while stlH a deacon, 
or perhaps even a layman, since we find that LInacre's first 
clerical preferm.ent was given him In the year of Henry the 


Eighth's accesslon, which must also have been that of Lln- 
acre's appointment as Court Physician, and it seems highly 
improbable that his ordinatlon should have taken place almost 
simultaneously with thls appointment. But there is no proof 
that any dispensation whatever was referred to, and it is quite 
possible that the Pope's generosity may have been shewn in 
some other way, such as by some valuable present, slnce this 
might have been, what a dlspensation could not have been, 
bestowed aHke on his other old schoolfellows. 

Two other translatlons from Galen, were pubHshed by 
Linacre during hls lifetime, one the treatlse De Naturalibus 
FacfUtatibus in the year 1523 by Pynson, in London, and a 
short tract De Pulstmm Usu, elther in the same year or in 
the next, whlch was the last year of Linacre's Hfe. Two other 
translations, De Symptomatum Differentiis and De Symptoma' 
tum Causis, were printed by Pynson after the wrlter's death. 

Two grammatlcal works must also be mentioned as oc- 
cupylng some part of Linacre's later years ; the Rttdimenta 
Grammatices was composed for the use of the Princess Mary, 
and is in EngHsh, though its title is Latln. It was afterwards 
translated into Latin by George Buchanan, and in this form 
pubHshed at Paris. 

A more elaborate work entltled De Emenctatd structurd 
was not printed untll the year 1524, but from the history of 
its composltlon must have been wrltten about 14 years earHer. 
Linacre's old friend Dean Colet, the founder of St PauFs 
School, desiring to have for the use of his school a better 
grammar than any whlch already exlsted, appears to have 
asked Linacre to compose a suitable work. The treatise of 
whlch we are now speaking resulted, but when produced it 
was thought to be, in bulk and difficulty, quite beyond the 
comprehenslon of young pupils. Colet accordingly thought 
himself obHged to decHne it, and substituted a much shorter 


compendium writteii by himself, or William Lily, or by both 
jointly, which was afterwards revised by Erasmus and re- 
printed by Cardinal Wolsey for the use of Ipswicli School. 
This was the foundation of the well-known Lily's Grammar. 
Linacre appears to have been annoyed at the rejection of his 
Grammar, and a breach was thus made in his friendship with 
Colet, which never appears to have been healed. Erasmus 
vainly endeavoured to bring about a reconcihation. This 
was the best known work pubHshed by Linacre in the domain 
of scholarship ; several editions were printed by Estienne at 
Paris, and many others in other European cities. To some 
is prefixed a laudatory preface by Melanchthon. It is not 
quite clear whether it was pubHshed before or immediately 
after the authors death. 

The works now mentioned were, in combination with 
medical practice, the occupation of the last 14 years of Lin- 
acre's life. It is impossible to say exactly at what time he 
gave up the active practice of his profession. The only 
passage which might be supposed to throw any Hght on 
the subject, is one in the dedication of the translation of 
De Naturalibus Facultatibus to Archbishop Warham, where 
he speaks gratefuHy of the leisure afforded by the assumption 
of the priestly ofhce conferred on him by Warham^^. But as 
the only certain instance of his receiving a benefice from the 
Archbishop, was that of the rectory of Merstham, in 1509, 
the year in which Linacre entered upon his duties as Court 
Physician, it seems that some later preferment or else ordi- 
nation, must be referred to. It is possible therefore, that he 
may have only graduahy given up practice. 

But Linacre rendered a service to medicine far more im- 
portant than any of his writings, by the foundation of the 
CoHege of Physicians and it is for this that he has been and 


will contlnue to be held in grateful remembrance. In order to 
understand the importance and utility of Linacre's conception 
we must remember that up to this time medicine could not be 
said to have existed as a distinct profession in England. The 
two classes of physicians and surgeons were very widely sepa- 
rated. The former were chiefly ecclesiastics and so far as any 
authorization was necessary to allow them to practice they 
received their authority from the Bishops or Archbishops. A 
statute passed in the ^rd year of Henry VIII. (3 Henry VIII. 
Cap. II.) exhibits a first attempt to remedy this deficiency. It 
is there recited that " forasmuch as the science and cunning of 
physic and chirurgy to the perfect knowledge whereof be 
,requisite both great learning and ready experience is daily in 
this realm exercised by great multitudes of ignorant persons 
of whom the greater part have no manner of insight in the 
same nor in any other kind of learning ; some also can know 
no letters on the book, so far that common artificers as smiths, 
weavers, and women boldly and customarily take upon them 
great cures of things of great difflculty in the which they partly 
use sorcery and witchcraft, and partly apply such medicines 
unto the disease as be very noyous and are not meet therefor, 
to the high displeasure of God, great infamy to the faculty, 
and the grievous hurt, damage, and destruction of many of the 
King's liege people, most especially of them that cannot dis- 
cern the uncunning from the cunning." It is then provided 
that no one should practise as a physician or surgeon within 
the City of London or seven miles from the same except he be 
examined and proved by the Bishop of London or by the 
Dean of PauVs with the aid of doctors of Physic and experts 
in surgery. In other parts of the country the duty of proving 
medical practitioners was assigned to the Bishop of the 


We do not know whether Linacre's influence was in any 
way concerned in getting this Statute passed, A few years 
afterwards, in the year 1 5 1 8, Royal letters patent were granted 
for the carrying out of the scheme in which Linacre was con- 
cerned and which was in all probabihty framed by him. The 
letters were addressed to John Chambre, Thomas Linacre, 
and Fernandus de Victoria, together with three other physicians 
also named, and all men of the same faculty in London. 
These were to be incorporated as one perpetual commonalty 
or College, to have the power of electing a President, the use 
of a common seal, the hberty of holding lands in fee and of 
purchasing lands whose annual value did not exceed £^2. 
They were permitted to make statutes for regulating the 
practice of physic in London and for seven miles round, and 
received the important privilege of punishing offenders by fine 
or imprisonment. 

These letters were dated 2 3rd September in the loth year 
of Henry VI IL Four years after the privileges thereby 
granted were confirmed and extended by a Statute (14 & 15 
Henry VIII. Cap. 5). By this Statute the privileges of the 
College were extended over the whole of England, no person 
being allowed to practise physic without having been examined 
and licensed by the President of the College and three of the 
elect. The reason given for this extension of privilege was 
the difhculty of finding in each diocese men able to sufhciently 
examine those who were to be admitted physicians. The 
graduates of Oxford or Cambridge who had accomphshed all 
their exercises in due form without any grace were alone 
allowed to practise without a Hcence. The privileges of the 
Cohege v^^ere confirmed and enlarged by several subsequent 
Statutes and Letters Patent in the reign of King James the 
First, in the Protectorate of Cromwell, and at other times. 


Among other powers conferred by James the First was that 
of examining into the purity and goodness of all apothecaries' 
wares kept in the houses of apothecaries and druggists in 
London. This right was exercised up till the beginning of 
this century and a similar inspection or visitation of drugs is 
still performed by Government Assessors in Germany. 

Comparing the College of Physicians with the bodies which 
exercised the sam.e rights in other countries in the sixteenth 
century we see that the chief justification for its existence was 
the fact that no University or Faculty of Medicine existed in 
London. In Paris, for instance, and in other University 
cities very similar privileges were given to the Faculty, that is 
to say, to the Doctors of Medicine of the University. It would 
have been a serious curtailment of University privileges to 
have founded in those cities any body Hke the College of 
Physicians. Linacre, v/ho was so well acquainted with the 
learned bodies of Italy and France, must doubtless have felt 
the want in London of a learned body with the name and 
dignity of the University. His College was doubtless in- 
tended to take the place of the University so far as medicine 
was concerned. There is, however, no hint of any provision 
for teaching. 

Beside the ostensible object of preventing the practice 
of medicine by ignorant persons, the foundation of the 
College effected another equally important reform which may 
possibly have been foreseen and intended by its founders, 
although the intention was not avowed. This was nothing 
else than the Hberation of medicine and the medical profession 
from the control of the Church. The Bishops, it is said, not- 
withstanding the formal aboHtion of their privileges, continued 
to Hcense physicians for 1 80 years after the foundation of the 
CoHege, but never since has any ecclesiastical authority con- 


trolled the status or the practice of the medlcal professlon in 
England. This liberty could hardly have been so complete 
had medicine been as completely as in other countries a de- 
partment of University teaching. Linacre's foundation must 
have the credit of preserving medicine both from the imme- 
diate domination of clerics and from future subjection to the 
leaden rule of orthodoxy, which swayed for several centuries 
the English Universities. The conditions of the new Col- 
lege~and the mode of admission into it were clearly designed, 
and were calculated to give a very definite stamp to the Eng- 
Hsh physician. He was to be in the first place a man of learn- 
ing, and in this respect the standard of the College was cer- 
tainly higher than that of the Universities, as is clear from 
the history of certain controversies that arose between these 
authorities. Considering too that it was scarcely possible 
to obtain in this country the particular kind of learning re- 
quired, a strong inducement was held out to physicians to study 
at the Universities of the Continent, especiallyin Italy. Hence 
physicians were not only learned but very often travelled per- 
sons ; and the names of foreigners are found rather frequently 
in the early rolls of the College. Moreover as the number of 
physicians practising in London was not large, and the diffi- 
culties of obtaining a licence were so considerable, a physician 
had no doubt a social position very much above that of the 
surgeon, and perhaps relatively higher than at the present day. 
It must be admitted also that the standing of an English 
physician has been made more definite and further removed 
from any association with trade than in any other European 
country. We see then pretty clearly what was the ideal that 
Linacre had framed ; — a grave and learned person, well read in 
Galen, respecting, but not bowing down to, the prestige of 
the Universities, claiming for his own science a dignity apart 


from, but not conflictlng with, that of theology, looking upon 
surgeons and apothecaries with charity, but not without a sense 
of his own superiority. 

Such was to be the EngUsh Physician, and Linacre suc- 
ceeded, if such was his object, in moulding a definite type of 
character which lasted for two centuries at least. But the 
physician of Linacres school is no more ; — his epitaph was 
written nearly a hundred years ago by no less a person than 
Samuel Johnson. The great lexicographer was asked upon 
his death-bed for what physician he had sent. " I have sent," 
he said, "for Heberden, tiltimum Romanortcm, the last of our 
learned physicians." 

The further history of the College of Physicians need 
not be written here ; but something must be said of two 
other foundations also due to the pubHc spirit and far-seeing 
benevolence of Linacre. These were his readerships at 
Oxford and Cambridge. In order to provide for the pubHc 
teaching of medicine in the University and more especially 
for the reading of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, 
Linacre shortly before his death transferred to trustees con- 
siderable landed estates producing about £^o a year, which 
it was no doubt intended should be conveyed directly to the 
Universities for the foundation of Readerships. But the 
manner in which his purpose was carried out was unsatis- 
factory, and the subsequent history of the foundations is a 
melancholy chapter in University annals. The four trustees 
were Sir Thomas More, Tunstall, Bishop of London, 
Stokesley, himself afterwards a bishop and a certain Sheriff, 
a lawyer. For reasons which it is difficult to understand, 
unless simply neghgence and procrastination were responsi- 
ble, nothing was done with these funds till the reign of 
Edward VL, when Tunstall, the surviving trustee, transferred 


part of the estate to Merton College, Oxford, for the founda- 
tion of two Readers, and another part to St John's College, 
Cambridge, for the estabhshment of a Readership there. It 
is quite clear that Linacre intended these to be University 
and not college foundations. His intention is sufficiently 
estabHshed by a letter addressed to him by the University 
of Oxford which has been pubHshed by Dr Johnson. The 
University acknowledges " that pecuHar affection towards 
our commonwealth by which you have rendered yourself 
speciaUy eminent," and speaks of the splendid lectures "which 
you have appointed to be read here at your expense as wisely 
devoted to the study of medicine." This might seem to refer 
to a foundation already estabHshed, but for the concluding 
words of the letter, '^ Lastly, we earnestly and again and again 
implore you not to abandon the resolution you have under- 
taken, and that your intentions may never be so many and 
varied as to divert or overcrowd this project. Let us certainly 
hope that the restoration of these, as weU as all other studies 
to their pristine dignity may be effected during your Hfe, 
and if aught in- our power can promote this most excehent 
design, beHeve us prepared to second your wishes. Fareweh, 
and may you long enjoy Hfe, chief patron of learning ! " 
According to Anthony Wood, Linacre's foundation was settled 
in Merton CoHege instead of in the University, on account of 
the great decay of the University in the reign of Edward VI., 
and through the persuasion of Dr Reynolds, warden of 
Merton CoHege. This CoHege was moreover for some 
reason speciaHy frequented by the students of medicine. 
The appointment of readers, originaHy the duty of the 
trustees, was now transferred to the CoHege. Members of 
the CoHege had a preference for the appointment ; though 
if none were found properly quaHfied, a member of another 


College or Hall might be appointed. The appointment was 
for three years only. With our present experience of Uni- 
versity history, it is easy to see that no system could have 
been better calculated to reduce Linacre's great foundation 
to uselessness and obscurity. 

The names of a few of the eadier readers are given by 
Wood ; that of one only, Dr Robert Barnes, emerges from 
total obscurity. The Readerships soon became sinecures, and 
their stipends were regarded as nothing more than an agree- 
able addition to the incomes of two of the Fellows. Among 
the many similar instances of the misappHcation of endow- 
ments we shall not easily find a grosser abuse. Twenty years 
ago, as is well known, the Oxford Commissioners revived the 
name of the Founder in the present flourishing Linacre Pro- 
fessorship of Anatomy so ably hlled, so important in the 
history of science in Oxford, and provided for its endowment 
by Merton College, as an equivalent for the income which the 
College still derives from Linacre's estates. 

At Cambridge the history of the corresponding Reader- 
ship was even more unfortunate. The appointment was 
given to St John's College, and though it was at first pro- 
vided that the lectures of Linacres Reader should be de- 
Hvered in the Schools of the University, the office soon 
came to be regarded as nothing more than a college sinecure. 
Moreover, through bad management of the funds, or chiefly, 
I beheve, through an imprudent exchange of the estate 
originally settled by Linacre for one which has turned out 
to be of less value, the income originally intended for the 
Readership seems to have been lost. But for the sake of 
other than Cambridge men it ought to be here stated that 
the present Linacre Reader of Pathology fills with credit a 
chair most inadequately endowed, and has revived in Cam- 


bridge the public teachings of a study perfectly congruous 
with, thoug-h different from that which was intended by the 
founder, It is impossible to doubt that Linacre looked for- 
ward to founding what should essentially be a school of medi- 
cine in each University. And it is a strange instance of the 
irony of fate, that Cambridge at the present day far 
nearer to carrying out the plans of the great scholar than his 
own University of Oxford, to which he always shewed the 
loyalty of an affectionate son, and on which he conferred the 
largest share of his munificent bounty. 

In the year 1524 it became evident to Linacre that his 
heahh was breaking, and in June of that year he executed his 
will. He appears to have suffered much from the painful 
disease, stone in the bladder, which finally carried him off on 
the 20th October, 1524, at the age, as is supposed, of sixty- 
four. His death was a great loss to the cause of learning in 
England, and many passages in the letters of contemporary 
scholars will shew that it was not less felt in all learned circles 
throughout Europe. He was buried in the Old Cathedral of 
St Paul, but for more than thirty years no memorial appears 
to have marked his grave. This strange neglect was only 
suppHed in the year 1557 by the great physician John Caius, 
a name memorable in Cambridge annals, who if not personally 
a pupil of Linacre was in the most complete sense the in- 
heritor of his spirit, and the most perfect type of a physician, 
such as the founder of our College wished to see. The Latin 
epitaph, written no doubt by Caius himself, perished in the 
great fire of London, but has been preserved by Dugdale. 
After an enumeration of the learned works and pubHc services 
of Linacre it sketches in a few words a fine character, 
" Fraudes dolosque mire perosus ; fidus amicis ; omnibus 
ordinibus juxta carus." 


It will hardly be necessary to supplement the terse 

eulogium pronounced by Caius, by any attempt to sum up 

Linacre's moral excellences. But it may be worth while to 

form some estimate of the talents and accomplishments which 

gave him so high a reputation among his contemporaries. 

No original writing of Linacre's has been preserved, except 

his grammatical works and a few dedications and letters, on 

the strength of which it would be absurd to hazard any gene- 

ralization as to his intellectual power. His reputation rested 

and still rests upon his translations ; together with the un- 

defined, but unmistakably strong impression which he pro- 

duced upon his friends and Hterary contemporaries. From 

them we should gather that it was to the multifariousness of 

Linacre's attainments as well as his excellence in each, that he 

owed his renown. To his literary faculty there are many 

testimonies. His Latin writing was thought to be so good 

that according to the friendly eulogium of Erasmus, the 

works of Galen as interpreted by Linacre, spoke better 

Latin than they had before spoken Greek. Other opinions 

not less laudatory were expressed both by Erasmus himself in 

other places and by other scholars not less sensitive in the 

matter of style. Linacre was not, however, a slavish imitator 

of any master. Erasmus among others has preserved the 

tradition of his slight regard for Cicero. He would rather 

have been thought to write Hke QuinctiHan. The only com- 

plaint however which Erasmus makes against his friend is for 

his excessive elaboration in poHshing and correcting his 

writings, from which it resuhed that much of his work was 

reserved as not sufficiently perfect to be pubHshed : and in 

many cases ultimately lost^*. It is disappointing to hear that 

Linacre had translated Aristotle in such a way that Erasmus 

says ^ sic Latine legitur Aristoteles 2it, licet Atticiis, vix in suo 


sermone parem habeat gratiam ' : and of his other versions 
' szmt illi permulta in scriniis, magno usui futura studiosis' 

Beside the excellence of his style, Linacre was famed for 
his critical judgment, 'vir non exacti tantum sed severi judicii\ 
says Erasmus, while in Grammar and Rhetoric, as shewn in 
the curious Httle fable of Richard Pacey formerly quoted, he 
was regarded as no less a master. Moreover he was what 
was called in those days an eminent * philosopher,' that is, 
profoundly read in the works of the ancient naturahsts and 
philosophers, such as Aristotle, Plato and PHny. 

It is not easy to form any distinct notion of Linacre's skill 
in his own profession. Little more was expected of a physi- 
cian in those days than to apply with proper care the maxims 
of the books. We do not even know whether in his practice 
Linacre made more use of the ancient medical classics whom 
he was endeavouring to rescue from neglect than of the 
* Neoterics ' who were the ruhng spirits of the day, and whose 
doctrines were derived from the Arab physicians or from 
European schools sprung out of the Arab learning. Some 
have taken for granted that a man so great in book learning 
could not be good in practice. But the few notices which remain 
give no countenance to this assumption. Erasmus comme- 
morates in two or three places his friend's medical skill. In 
one he deplores Linacre's absence, and laments (with curious 
modernism) that his servant had left the physician's last pre- 
scription at the druggist's, and begs for another copy. In 
one instance a record of Linacre's treatment of Erasmus's 
complaint remains, and appears to have been as sensible and 
practical, as if the physician had known not a word of Greek, 
and had passed his Hfe as a country apothecary. He is also 
recorded to have advised his friend WiHiam Lily not to 
consent to an operation for the removal of a tumour of the 


hip ; but the operation undertaken against Linacre's advice, 
unfortunately proved fatal. 

It was not Linacres fortune to contribute anything to the 
science of medicine, or to any of its collateral sciences. His 
age was not one of research as now understood. The first 
original work on medicine produced in England was done by 
his successor Caius, whose treatise on the sweating sickness 
pubhshed twenty years after Linacre's death is still esteemed. 
This and other great epidemics must have passed before the 
eyes of Linacre, but no record remains to shew us in what 
Hght he regarded theni. Nor is there any evidence that he 
appreciated the importance of the revival of Anatomy and 
Botany ; sciences on which the subsequent development of 
medicine in Europe has so largely been based. Though 
evidently eagerly desirous to assist in the renovation of medical 
science, he looked to other means to accomphsh this end. 
What these means were it may be worth while to state sorne- 
what more in detaiL 

The aim which Linacre and other scholars set before them 
in translating or pubHshing the works of Galen can only be 
understood by a consideration of the state of medical learning 
and scholarship at the time. The student of medicine in those 
days, hke the student of theology or philosophy, had to derive 
his knowledge almost entirely from books. There was indeed 
one school of practical .anatomy in Italy, that founded by 
Mundinus at Bologna in the i^th century, and continued in 
Linacre's time by Berengarius Carpus, who is said to have 
dissected one hundred bodies with his own hand, but in other 
parts of Europe only a Hterary knowledge of anatomy was 
possible. There was no such thing as hospital instruction, 
and what would be called in modern times Materia Medica 
was represented only by the empirical knowledge of humble 


collectors of simples, and by the works of scholars learned 
only in books who gave descriptions borrowed at second or 
third hand from the Arabian physicians, or at a still greater 
distance from Aristotle. Medical learning, thus understood, 
received like all other learning the stimulus of two great 
movements, the revival of Greek literature, with the con- 
sequent higher estimation of the classical Latin writers, on 
the one hand, and on the other hand the readier diffusion of 
books through the invention of printing, How the classical 
revival affected letters in generai, theology and philosophy, is 
well known. Everywhere men became aware more or less 
distinctly that there was a new world of knowledge within 
their reach, but concealed from them by a mass of com- 
mentary and compilation, barbarous in language, and corrupt 
in substance, though professedly founded on the works of 
those great authors who were Httle more than names to the 
mediseval scholars. Gradually the great figures of antiquity 
became more distinct, as the followers of the new learning 
tore off the barbarous wrappings which had so long hidden or 
distorted them. It was in this spirit that the scholars set tp 
work in their great task of restoring antiquity. There were 
doubtless many other aims, and some of them higher, which 
animated the more ardent spirits of the Renaissance, but of 
these we cannot pretend to speak. What alone concerns us 
here is their resolute endeavour to get at the real Aristotle, 
Plato or Homer, instead of the reflections and shadows of 
them which had long been reverenced. It was this spirit 
which made the printing of the first edition of Homer by 
Chalcondylas and Demetrius Cretensis in 1488, seem to them, 
as it has indeed seemed to later generations, an epoch in 
Hterature. It was this which in the next generation led 
Erasmus to devote years of labour tp bringing out the Novum 


Testamentum, and It was in this spirit too, that Linacre the 
pupil of Chalcondylas and the teacher of Erasmus, standing 
between the literary and the reHgious revival, conceived the 
two great projects of his Hfe, the pubhcation of Aristotle and 
Galen in a form accessible to the whole learned world. The 
first scheme indeed he scarcely commenced, of the latter he 
did but httle, though as he says " nihil magis in votis erat." 

To discover the genuine text of an ancient author and 
make it known may seem to us a useful task, though not 
among the greatest, but to the scholars of the Renaissance 
it was a matter of supreme importance. Linacre and his fellow 
workers doubtless expected that medicine would profit as 
much by the rediscovery of the Greek medical writings as 
letters and philosophy had gained from the masterpieces of 
Greek poetry and speculation ; and it was with such hopes 
that they undertook to revive and make known the works 
of Galen. Galen, Hke Aristotle, had been very imperfectly 
known, even to those who most impHcItly acknowledged his 
authority. With regard to Aristotle Sir Alexander Grant 
has pointed out that thousands of scholars who considered 
themselves staunch ArlstoteHans, knew not a word of the 
master beyond the two first treatlses in the Organon ; and 
In the same way, many who reverenced Galen as the source 
of aH medical knowledge, knew him only through Imperfect 
Latin verslons, the compilations of mediseval scholars, or of 
the Arabians, whose works were chiefly based on Galen, and 
who had in this case as in that of Aristotle the credit of 
making a Greek author in large measure known to the 
modern world. 

The works of Avicenna, Mesua and others were the chlef 
medlcal text-books In Europe before, and even for a long 
tlme after, the revival of learnlng. The Jewish teachers, who 


had founded schools of surgery in many European cities, 
(among others in Oxford, before the rise of the University) 
were versed in Arabian learning, and thus it came to pass 
that medicine presented itself to the mediaeval world in an 
Arabian dress. From these sources and from the teachers of 
the school of Salerno, were compiled the manuals of the 
" Arabistse " or " Neoterici," which under such names as 
Articella, Practica, Lilium Medicinse, Rosa AngHca were the 
daily guides of the medical practitioner. 

When the Arabian writers fell into disrepute, partly through 
being condemned as heretical, and partly as being barbarous 
in. style, it was regarded, if one may say so, as a sort of in- 
dignity that Medical Science should still be so much beholden 
to the infidel sages. Those physicians who were also scholars 
felt this to be a reproach which must be wiped out. This 
feeling, fantastic as it may seem, was apparently wide-spread 
through the little world of scholars, and has been expressed by 
one of them in a manner so strange that I cannot forbear to 
quote it both for the sake of the grain of truth which it con- 
tains, and for its unconscious reflection of the fantastic ideas of 
the age. 

The author Symphorien Champier was a physician of 
Lyons, a voluminous writer as well as a Hberal and wealthy 
patron of letters. The extract is from a short tract Symphonia 
Galeni ad Hippocratem, Cornelii Celsi ad Avicennam, una 
cum sectis antiquorum medicorum ac rece^ttium, forming the 
introduction to a Httle work on Clysters, Clysteriorum campi 
contra Arabztm opinionem pro Galeni sententid, etc, which is 
known in Hterature as the original of the "Treatise on Clysters, 
by S. C", placed by Rabelais in the catalogue of books 
forming the Hbrary of St Victor. 

After lamenting that for so many centuries pure Hterature, 


that is Greek and Roman, should have been neglected, and 
instead the mean ditties [nenics) of certain pretenders should 
have been cuhivated, Indigmun facinus, says Champier, {ita 
me deus a^nel) nullis bobus, nullisque victimis expiandtim. 

Next, passing to the subjects of philosophy and medicine, 
he represents a war as arising between the Arabians and the 
Classics, which might have ended disastrously for the latter, 
but for the interposition of divine providence. 

" Jam eo insolentise ac temeritatis devenerant Arabi prin- 
cipes, ut nobis medicam artem funditus auferre audacissime 
conarentur ; quandoquidem castra solventes in Grsecos ac 
Latinos omnem behi impetum convertebant, muhaque milha 
processerant, cum deus Opt. Max. (cujus est hominum repente 
et consiha et animos immutare) ut auguror sanctissimi Lucae 
precibus et orationibus flexus, auxiharios mihtes demisit, qui 
obsidione miseros, Hippocratem, Galenum, Dioscoridem, 
Paulum Aeginetam et nostrum Celsum Cornehum, jam dedi- 
tionem cogitantes eriperent et hberarent ; idque quanta sit 
confectum dihgentia, in confesso est. Hippocrati non pauci 
auxiho fuere, Galeno ab Arabum principe oppresso strennue 
[sic] adfuit Vicentinorum dux [Nicolaus Leonicenus], prseterea 
ex Galhi Copus, ex Angha Linacrus, bone deus quo studio, 
qui alacritate. Porro Dioscoridi Gahorum virtus et ferocia, 
Venetorum prudentia, Florentinorum divitise opem tulerunt." 

This passage only puts in an extravagant form the same 
ideas about the value of ancient learning in relation to medi- 
cine which we have already quoted from the letters of Leoni- 
cenus, and of Aldus» 

A more serious scholar than Symphorien Champier, Janus 
Cornarius, has left a very clear statement of the position 
which Galen and the ancient medical writers were considered 
to occupy at this critical epoch in the history of learning. 


He says that medicine, like all good arts and disciplines, 
comes from the Greeks, and is to be learnt from their works 
alone. As to the Arabs, Avicenna, Rhazes and others, who 
now-a-days reign in nearly all our schools, and the numerous 
Italian or French physicians, who have become celebrated by 
writing so many of the books called 'Practica,' they are 
physicians only in name. It were to be wished, he says, 
that all public schools would acknowledge their errors and 
repudiate the barbarian physicians, as the Florentine academy 
had done. 

*'At vero non penitus desperandum quando nuper adeo 
una Florentina Academia resipiscendo aHquando etiam aliis 
spem nobis exhibuit, qu86 excusso Arabicse et barbarae servi- 
tutis medicse jugo, ex professo se Galenicam appellavit et 
profligato barbarorum exercitu, unum totum et solum Galenum, 
ut optimum artis medicse authorem, in omnibus se sequuturum 
polHcita est^^." 

The above extracts will shew far more vividly than any 
generahzed statements in what Hght Galen and the ancients 
appeared to scholars at the time of the revival of learning. 
Before considering what was the actual effect of the revival 
of the ancient medicine on modern science and practice, it 
may be weU to clear away a certain amount of misconception 
which has been prevalent on the subject. 

It is often assumed that the study of Galen introduced 
the habit of relying impHcitly on authority and dogma, and 
thus retarded the progress of medicine. But in reaHty the 
habits of submission to authority and bHnd acceptance of 
tradition were already prevalent, and had been so long before 
the revival of learning. Never were men more ready to bow 
down to authority than in the middle ages ; and, in name at 
least, they reverenced even the ancient rulers of thought, 



Aristotle, Galen and Hippocrates, though it was to distorted 
images of these heroic personages that their homage was paid. 
The names of Galen and Hippocrates were associated with 
corrupt and often spurious treatises, of which the style was as 
barbarous as the matter was worthless. The aphorisms of 
Hippocrates were known in Latin versions as the Ampkorismi, 
a barbarism perpetuated even by Symphorien Champier. 
Galen was chiefly known by a Httle treatise, often copied and 
printed with the title Liber Tegni Galieni, afterwards known 
as the Ars Parva to distinguish it from the great Methodus 
Medendi, translated by Linacre. The quaint title of this work 
is a history and a commentary in itself ; a scholar might well 
be puzzled with the word Tegni, which seems to suggest an 
imaginary author, Tegnus Gahenus. But this word is simply 
a corruption of the Greek re^Qjiq, handed down by a succession 
of scribes ignorant of Greek. Moreover, as in the case of 
Aristotle, not only were the works ascribed to Galen and 
Hippocrates corrupted and misunderstood ; but their best 
works were unknown. If men were to bow down to canonical 
authority it was better they should have the best works of the 
writers regarded as caaonical, and have them unadulterated. 

On the lowest view then the change was rather the sub- 
stitution of one dogma for another than the introduction of 
the dogmatic habit; but in reahty a much wider and more 
salutary reform was involved. In the first place, the new 
authorities were actually much more valuable than the old, 
and in the second place the new dogma, instead of being 
merely conservative and petrifying, was found to be innovating 
and inspiriting in its tendency. Galen himself was not so strictly 
a Galenist as his followers. His works shew (in spite of his 
undeniable and fatal love of system and formula) enterprise and 
originaHty, with frequent reference to observation, and even 


experiment. They led also inevitably to a study of Hippocrates, 
a writer far more unsystematic, and free from the vice of 
formaHsm, whose sagacity and power of observation give his 
works a perennial freshness. Finally, the revival of the ancient 
classics led to the revival also of the sciences on which modern 
medicine rests, and which were destined to overthrow all the 
dogmatic systems, viz. Anatomy and the knowledge of Drugs. 

Haller, speaking of the progress of anatomy in the i6th 
century, attributes it to two chief causes, the revival of the 
works of Galen, and the invention of printing. Not less did 
Botany and Pharmacology take a new departure from the 
works of Dioscorides. It would thus appear that the task 
of Linacre and the scholars, really though not in appearance, 
contributed to the scientific movement which was the turning- 
point in modern medicine. This movement was the special 
work of the i6th century. The time had not yet come for 
the reform in practical medicine which the progress of the 
sciences rendered possible, and which was reserved to be the 
special glory of the next age. But a definite and brilHant 
service was rendered to the progress of medicine by the 
scholars of the Renaissance, among whom no name is better 
entitled to be held in grateful remembrance than that of 
Thomas Linacre. 

It would be out of place here to enter into any general 
estimate of the value of Galen's writings. They are of im- 
mense bulk, and few persons in modern times can claim to 
have done more than dip into them. But this massiveness and 
bulk were perhaps even among the features which caused his 
works to be held in such high estimation. They formed a vast 
encyclopsedia in which all the ancient medical lore was com- 
prised. A very large part of the works even of Hippocrates 
may be said to be contained in Galen, and many older 


writers are now only known through the account whlch Galen 
has given of them. The Galenical collection embraces ana- 
tomy, physiology, practical medicine, and what we should now 
call Hygiene, as well as dissertations on the history and sects 
of medicine, with many curious anecdotes and allusions to the 
manners and opinions of his time. We hear also of works on 
logic and philosophy which are almost entirely lost. 

This encyclopaedic knowledge was classihed with a sys- 
tematic minuteness and a delusive appearance of scientific 
precision which especially iitted Galen to be a ruler of thought 
in ages when men were willing to accept an intellectual 
despotism. The disciple of Galen had a formula to explain 
every disease, and a rule for the treatment of every case. 

What his general principles were is shewn very clearly 
in the work now reprinted, which is rather physiological or 
physical than strictly medical. In it we find developed the 
theory of humours and temperaments, which formed the 
physiological basis of Galen's system of medicine ; and which, 
conveyed through many popular medical works to the lay 
pubHc, entered largely into the current philosophy of the time. 
Hence Linacre speaks of this work as not less necessary to 
philosophers than to physicians. Some knowledge of these 
ideas is indispensable for understanding many allusions and 
metaphors in Enghsh writers of the EHzabethan age. Nay 
more, a great part of it has passed into our common language. 
Such words as ' humour'' in its many acceptations, and many 
compounds, temperament, temper, choler, melancholy and others 
derived all their original significance from the place which 
they held in the Galenical system. It is perhaps not too 
much to suppose that this very version may have been among 
the sources whence such writers as Elyot (who was a pupil of 
Linacre) in his Castell of Helth, Bright, the predecessor 


of Burton, in his Treatise of Melancholie, and later, Walkington, 
in the fantastic book called The Optick Glasse of Humors, 
obtained the ideas "which, popularized by them, became the 
common property of scholars and hterary men. From this 
point of view, our treatise is not without importance in the 
history of Enghsh Hterature. 

The httle treatise at the end, De IncBqtiali intemperie, is no 
part of the work which precedes it ; but is apparently appended 
by Linacre to shew Galen's appHcation of his physiological 
system to certain points in pathology or the theory of disease. 

It is only necessary to say in conclusion that this version 
of the De Temperamentis appears to have been the first ever 
made in Latin, or at least pubHshed. Orlandi (in 1722) 
speaks of a previous edition with Linacres name, pubhshed at 
Venice in the year 1498, but this statement is certainly erro- 
neous. All the enquiries of Linacre's learned biographer, 
Dr Noble Johnson, and of the present editor, have failed to 
estabhsh the existence of any such edition, and indeed the 
preface to this edition is of itself enough to refute the story. 
The treatise De incBqttali intemperie on the other hand had 
been previously translated into Latin, though not by Linacre. 
It is included in a cohection of Latin versions of many of 
the works of Galen and others, translated by Georgius Valla, 
of Piacenza. This was printed at Venice in 1498; and hence, 
no doubt, the source of the confusion between Vallas trans- 
lation of this treatise and Linacre's translation of this and the 
De Temperamentis. I have seen the third edltion of Vallas 
collection published at Pavia 1 5 1 6 ; the version of this treatise 
there given is quite different from Linacre's. Dr Johnson 
is responsible for the statement that a second edition of 
both was published during Linacres lifetime, of which a 
presentation copy on vehum given to Henry VIII. is in the 


Bodleian Library. But an examination of this copy has 
convinced me that it is of the same edition, though an error 
in the printing of the last six leaves makes it appear different. 
According to the British Museum Catalogue a second edition 
in 24mo. was printed at London in 1527. The version was 
frequently reprinted on the continent, either alone or as a part 
of the collected Latin editions of Galen's works ; but no sub- 
sequent edition has appeared in this country. 



1. Translation of Proclus de Sphcerd. Venice, by Aldus Romanus, 1499. Folio. 

2. Translation of Galen, De Sanitate tuendd. Paris, Gulielmus Rubeus, 15 17. 

3. Translation of Galen, Methodus Medendi. Paris, Desiderius Maheu, 15 19. 

4. Translation of Galen, De Temperamentis et de incBquali intemperie. Cam- 
bridge, Siberch, 1521. 4to. 

5. Translation of Galen, De Naturalibus Facultatibus. London, Richard 
Pynson, 1523. 4to. 

6. Translation of Galen, De Pulsuum ust7. London, ' in aedibus pinsonianis,' 
sine anno. 4to. 

7. Translation of Galen, De Symptomatum Differeniiis et causis. London, 
Pynson, 1524. 4to. 

8. Rudimenta Grammatices. London, ' in sedibus pinsonianis,? sine anno. 4to. 

9. De emendatd structurd Latini sermonis. London, Pynson, 1524. 4to. 



The only separate biography of Linacre is that by Dr Noble Johnson, a fellow 
of the CoUege of Physicians, published, in 1835 after the author's death, under the 
editorship of Mr Robert Graves. From this the biographical part of the short 
sketch here given has been chiefly derived. Dr Johnson coUected with great 
learning and industry the contemporary notices of Linacre, as well as all that has 
appeared in later writers, and investigated many manuscript authorities. It would 
be ungrateful here to point out the few errors into which he has fallen, especially 
as they are probably partly due to his work having been published without the 
author's personal revision. The earliest life is either that contained in the Elogia 
contributed by George Lily to the Descriptio Britannice of Paulus Jovius, Venetiis, 
1548 (also Basilese 1578), orthat given in Balt^s Illustritnn majoris Britanni(Z scrip- 
tormn suimnariujn. Gippeswici, 1548. Further materials are contained in Leland 

{Principum et eruditorum etc. enco7tiia. London 1 589) Pits {^De Illtistribus Anglice 

scriptoribus); Freind's History of Physicj the Biographia Britannica ; Wood's 
Athence Oxonienses, Bishop TannePs Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, etc. 
Later biographical coUections, such as Ait^ken^s Biographical Mejnoirs of Medicine, 
the Lives of the British Physicians, and Dr Munk's learned Roll of the Royal 
College of Physicians, have added little or nothing. The present Editor has care- 
fully verified most of Dr Johnson's references ; and corrected or added a few facts, 
but has found little to glean after so exhaustive a worker. The latter part, however, 
of this short introduction owes Httle to Dr Johnson. I have to thank Mr Bradshaw, 
the University Librarian, for some valuable hints. 

NOTES (referred to in text). 

1. (Page 7). There is no reference to Linacre or Selling in the Stemmata 
Chicheleafia or in the MS. additions made to the copy in the library of AII Souls' 

2. (P. 10). Procli de Sphasra, in the coUection called Astronomici Veteres, Vene- 
tiis curdAldi Romani 1499. 

3. (P. 12). Dr Johnson quotes Pacey's De Fructti qui ex Doctrind percipitur, 
Basileas Froben 1517, p. 76. 

4. (P. 13). Calendar of Letters and Papers relating to the reign of Henry VIII, 
edited by Brewer, Vol. iv., part 3, page 2874, no. 6403. 

48 NOTES. 

5. (P. 13). Nicolai Leoniceni, De Plinii ac pluriimt aliorum in medicind 
erroribus Uber ad doctissimum virum Atigelum Politianum. Ferrariae 1492. 
Also in Angeli Politiani et aliorum epistolce. Lib, II., epist. 3, 4 et seq. (Ed. 
Hanovias 1622, page 46). 

6. (P. 14). Johnson's Life of Linacre, page 147. It does not appear whence 
these verses are quoted, as no reference is given by Dr Johnson. 

7. (P. 15). Seebohm. The Oxford Reformers: Colet, Erasmus, and More. 
2nd edition. London 1869, page 17. 

8. (P. 17). Erasmi Roterodami MoricB encomium. Basileae, Froben 1521, 
page 251. 

(Is this passage the foundation of Mr Browning's fine poem, "The Gram- 
marian's funeral"?) 

9. (P. 18). Paiilijovii Novocomensis episcopi Descriptio Brita7inicB. Basikce 
1571, p. 40. Elogia virorum per Georgium Lihum Britannum exarata. 

10. (P. 19). Sir John Cheke : 

Joa7inis Cheki Angli de pronuntiatione GrcECce potissiimim Ihiguce disputa- 
tiones cum Stephano Wintoiiiensi Episcopo. Basilese 1555, p. 176 and 281, etc. 
Linacre's name is brought in as foUows. Bishop Gardiner finds fault with Cheke 
for too Ciceronian a style of writing (Ciceronis grandiloquentiam ad sententias de 
rebus levibus atque ridiculis inconcinne additam et accommodatam), and quotes to 
him Erasmus in Ciceronianos and also Linacre, who he says never admired the 
style of Cicero and could not listen to it without disgust. Cheke retorts in the 
manner we have quoted, " Si de acumine et celeritate ingenii disputatur etc. — in eo 
si nunc viveret, tibi laudem concederet," and makes the curious remark that it is 
strange Linacre could not Hsten to Cicero without disgust, when his work De 
structurd abounds with examples taken from Cicero. Perhaps, Cheke suggests, 
he had not really neglected the study of that writer, but through some perversity 
wished to be thought to have neglected him, "ut non tam fortasse revera neglexerit, 
quam animi quidam morositate videri voluit neglexisse." 

11. (P. 21). The phrase quoted from Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernicay 
seems to refer clearly to ordination, not merely to coUation to a benefice. ^ 

12. (P. 21). See Dr Munk. Roll of the College of Physicians. 2nd edition 
1878, page 16. 

13. (P. 25). "pro ocio in quod me (honorifico coUato sacerdotio) ex negocio 
primusvindicasti." Introduction to Gdltn, De Naturalibus Eacttltatibus. London, 


14 (P. 34). This foible pf over-elaboration is discussed at great length by 
Bayle in his article on Linacre in the Dictionary. He remarks that though 
this is not a common fault with authors, it has often operated to the prejudice 
of the best, and to the consequent loss of the public. 

15. (P. 41). Janus Cornarius, in his introduction (dated 1535) to Marcellus de 
Medicamentis, pubhshed in the coUection called Medicce Artis Principes. Paris, 
Henr. Stephanus, 1567. 

O 6 

O O O O o 





PRETE .-. 

Opus nonmedicismodojffdet 

philofophis oppido ^ neccdariu 

nunc primum prodit inluccm 



_<> o j> o o 


Thomas Linacer Medicorum 
Minimiis. S, D, /. 

On hanc tibi lucubratiuncula 
mra Beatiffime Pater quafi 
tuis aptam ftudrjs dignamve 
ofFero, que- totu totius chri^ 
5 ftianas Reip, gubernaculis in 
cumbere omnes {cimus,(ed 
quod ftudiofis eam futura no ingratam iperem* 
quibus qtudquid vfui efle poteft,tibi quoc^ fo 
re lucundum no dubito. Accedit quod quu re^ 
cens in me collatse no vulgaris munificetiae tuse, 
qua me quoq^ ficut reliquos quicunc^ te olim co 
mitabamur in ludum beare es d^natus, non im 
memore me aliquo ialte ofRcr) genere dedarare 
Voluirvnu hoc inter faculrates meas quoid effi:» 
cereconarerliterarium peripexigenus* quod et 
mihicuipene praeter literas nihiieft,ettibiqLiiin 
literis eseiTunetiftimus maximeviiu (itcongrues. 
Tnquo genere Galeni hic, fe obtuIitIibeIP,brcuis 
oino, icd non minus philofophis qua medicis 
neceftarius. Qui breiucatelua fimul officiii meii 
minus erat moraturus,(imuI meas in uertedo,qua 
tulajcucp, certetcnuis facultatisguftiialique tibi 
pracbiturus , Pcrex .gua(fateor)res , nimis q^ ims* 

par quap pro (anteben/gnitatis vel Mncmo{yno 

ad facrapreferumCelfitudine lua mittatur, V eru 

et cuius ipfe vicem in terris geris paupercula?mu« 

lieris duo minuta probauit:et mola falfa litare eos, 

quithura non habcrent, proditu no ignoras.Sut 

fane mihi plura maiora q^ in manib^, quae vt pri^ 

mu per vaietudine et minifterrj mei officici bccbit, 

iitibiharc nondifplicere intelligam, fubnoie tuo 

(modo id non graueris) ardentiir. Non qyo iis 

operaspreciu ribi vllu me faduru autumcj quod 

(ciiicet mihi de meo ingeniolo fperare non licet, 

fed quo i]s ex praefatioe nois tui,qd^ merito litera 

tis omnib^ eft chariflimu, gratia aliqua autoritate 

c^ capte. Permuliu fane fiqui erut qui exvigilfjs 

meis frudum alique perc!pient,San(Sitati tuac dc 

bicuris.qui taminfigni beneficetiaftudiorii 

meorum odo cofulueris, Deu opt.Max. 

prccor diu te nobis fouet aic^ incoepta 

tuaomnia fecudet. Londim'. Anno 

Chriftian^ faluus , M. D^ XXL 

Nonis Sepicmbrxs» 


P R O Benclif huius intclligetia, fcire hcetsquu in 
ilngulis huius codtcis pagellis viginti (epte verfus 
concineatur; diuifis i]sintreisnouenarios:per A 
l^niGcanjreoru prim^* per Biccudus. etperC 
tercius ♦ Sic intra noue fempcr verfus kcflor quod 
cx Elenchoreqiuret, no difFicukerinueniet.Mo* 
do qui breuiffimus labor erit,fingulis Hbri chartis 
nunierum adfcriberc yelit» /• 

Animans in (ummo calidu humidu frigidum aut 
ficcum nuDum cflfc, folio primo,pagina . l C 
Autumni incomodum, fo.vij, i*B 

Autumniqualitas* fo.codcm, i»C 

Autumni et veris coIlatio« fo * eodem . q*A 

Animalia quomodo veteribus calida et humida 
fintdida. V fo*x. r]*A 

Atr*B bilis temperies^ fo, xkxH), i. C 

Animalcalidum et humidumcurdixerintuete*' 
rcs » fo^eodem, rj»C 

Adipis ct carnis varias caufe» fo.xxxiirj. tj ♦ B 
Anatomica fpcculatio» fo.xlrj. rj. G 

Ariftotelemdefubftatiaformatricis virtusts dii^ 
bitade^ fo,xIiirj.f]. A 

Abex^omometomagnamficriinterdum mu 
tattonem,et eius rd cxcmplumj fo H. i ♦ G 

Archimcdes* foliojij. i ♦ B 

Attciidcndufniicco et humi\ quid per fe tal^ fir 

2uidper acddens. foJv.i].B 

iUqm pari a noftro corporc magis qua agere 
aliqua magis agere qua pari* omnia vcro lu agerc 
tumpati. fo»Ivirj*i.C 

AiiroL^'!^, folio.Ivii)* i"i,C 

Aliquaprimo itatim viualterationemfiiam ofle 
dere» fo*IixiA 

Abs quibus externis iudicadu* foJxi. irj.B 

Ad aliquidefle quicquid ptate dicit. foJxiiri.i}.C 
Arterias^et venas partesefle compofitas, foJxvi* 
Aliter fimpfice carne aliter vniuer/iimmufculum 
inasquali temperie afFecftum cilc fo.lxvi* 

Abiccilio que mclior fit que deterior. fojxvi] 
Alterationis varietates in phlcgmonis, ex quincp 
generibus accidere» fo . Ix vifj* 

Animaliu quaeda couenietes, quaeda cotrarios iii 

Aliquos rjgere nec tamenfebridtarcRarucpid 

B (fo.IJcxi)\ 

BilioCimquod in uentriculogigniturquo fit co* 
lore, et quo quod in iocinore» fo .xlifj^ij. A 

Ca!idum,humidu/rigidu,Ccci3i multifariam Sid 
Ariftotelcm cenruiflc» foix. Vj .C 

CaKdum et frigidum Jiumidum et ficcu did idem 
corpusmukismodis» fo^xiij. i«B 

Calidu &Lfngidu nonde corporibus modojled 
eda de qualiradbos interdudici* eode» i), C 
Caltdaj fri hui [km fuhRmx^ qiise^fojxv XB 
Calida^fng^lmmiJaabfolmequa?* fo^xviii* B 
Cuceoi m calore & frigore mediuin opdnere 
ftatara» fo»%xii*B 

Chondi-ofyodermos fo. eodem» i}* A 

Calidani io a^iatlbiis qualiter cadu lit difcemeo^ 
duni* folio*xxix* i. A 

Calorem mpueris &florent!bus parem eflcio* 
Caroofi geoeris lpedes/o*xxxr], i A ^ xxxi. L B 
Caro proprie, quae folfo eodem, L A 

CariiaB iocuiodsjlienis^piilnionisj &renu«ii!Ti 
pHds natiirae ede» fo. eodem. i). B 

Cordis carne no eile fifnplke. fo* eode * rj* B 
Carnem veotriciilij vtedySC veCcarum propdani 
quandaiii eile» folio eodem^ fj* C 

Carnis cecriperies» fo. xxxii],» i A 

Car£ilaginis temperametu» fo» xxxii)* L B 
Calcarium temperies folio eodem* L B 

Carnoii qui» folio xxxiiij ♦ !]♦ B 

Cofuetudtiie effe acquiCdda natura* fp co* rj^ B 
Caliu cur^ folio xxxix* L B 

Canl cur» folio eodern» fj* A 

Cur caiui alincipite cam' a teporib^ magis fiat fo» 
Gui maxkne attcndedu cum cot^ (eode, fj. B 
poris teperie iudicabimuSt fo^ eode* i]« B 

Cur quib^ hirt^ eft thorax obidipffi aliquidorc 
liquis pardb^diffimilifint teperameto/o«^*ij*C 
Curis quando {iib fe pofitarii partiutcmpericm 
indicet,&quarum, folioKlf, i*C 

Cofiderandu etia fl quid raro accidit .fo. Jcli]«t]*A 
Cerebri ipfi^mperametum exquibus dignoica 
tur fo.xliii]*iA 

Caufa quseda huidstatis i carne fo*xlvi* i* A 
CoCderadu efie cx quibiis & in qua? mutaiioes 
fint fadae ♦ folio eodem f > B 

Cur aliqua protinus^aliqua interpofito tempore 
calefaciant, folio L i]» B 

Calefacere ois ee alimeti coem efFeflu Jo Jr]»ij* A 
Cur aliquaeorum quai^ ut alimenta comedutur, 
cuti impofita cxulcerct * folio Mi) «fj ♦ A 

Corpora calida* « & fic^quaedam per 
le talia effe, queda cx accidenti * fo» Iv ♦ i * B 
Canthandas Veficam cxulcerare, fo» eode» !)♦ A 
Comune iudiciu in onibus quae poteftate fiint 
cx alterationis celeritate* foIioJvi* U B 

Cotranetasnatura? vnde iudicada«.fo,eode,TJ.C 
Cedcndum aliquando cflTe non cxadiflime Ioj? 
qucntibus * folo Ivii). fj «B 

Cibi pariter & mcdicameta,quc. fo* lix, i ♦ B 
Calidi. frigidi»'cd,rcfpedu noflri iudi 
cium a nobis ccrtii eflc pofle» folio Ixi.i). A 
Calor quodo cx acddetircfiigeret. fo,Ixifj*ij*B 

CalidtUT) teumsL quauadmodummuiculi pmes 
Ccrpodstepmes quadoexmfc (iuadatioJxvi 
cus,€£ qiiado inscrne alter etur* fo Jxx/, 

Cur aliqui finiul rigeant ct febi-ickent fo,eode* 
Coticodioneniphiegmoms duofequl» iojxvi)* 

Demonftrationfs ois pnncipfa eile quse fenlui et 

2\m iotcliedlui fint manifefta* (o,xxvii),x), B 
)uru ££ rnolic cu medio aieer callt iudicada fo* 
Dubitaiio de nonnullis quooiodo ( xxxi. if C 
caiida frigida ue appellentur ♦ fo^xHx £ A 

Diuerforuexmedicameds effecluucaufe foMii) 
Diacaniharidon ^ fo Jv« ii-A < i* C 

Ddetenon* folioJvi» i)* A 

Deleterea vndeiudicanda, fo.eodem» rj« C 
Dubicatio de i\s quse^fub calore applicata, tamcn 
refrigerant foJviJ4\C 

Dupliciterfienaliquidcalidius, foJix* ij. A 
Duplidterfierialiquidfdgidius» fo»eode. i]«B 
DiuiGo pardu inaiorii in fibi proximas» foJx v i. 
Digeftionein phlegmoe raaxfeoptanda eflecu 
Dolor quado deCnat^fo^eode (rauone*fo«lxvij 
Doloris in febri fpadum et eius termin^ /o Jxi x, 

Eu&cos, folio ♦ x^. L A 

Eucraton corpus quod dicatwrt fo.xvi]. ij*B 
Exiimitate de (olonafo iudicandu^fo^ xlv« u A 

Error alius in iudicacfis teperametisfo^xlvi. ij, B 


Frigidam tempcrie ncc humidam neceflario efle 
nec ficcam» folio xvij* i* C 

Floreicetis etaustemperies, fo. xxva*A 
Fibra? temperies» folio eode. h A 

Fibrap yarias folfo Kxxi], i), C 

Flauae h^s tcmperies/ folio xxxiij* u C 

Formatrice vi artifice faaikate eflle (o,:sliii), !]♦ A 
Frigida per iiaturam immodice calefada vim fu 
am amittere» folio I viii * i* A 

Humidum & calidum tcmperametum eflt pcf 
fimum fo* vifj» l A 

Hominis cute mediii efCc in calido fri ♦ humorc 
&{icc«propriecp eaquaz i manu eft: fo,xix.i]»B 
Habitus hirfuius &!glaber quamtemperiem co 
mitentur, folio xxx vi A* B 

Hypophora de piloru gcneraiioe folio eo, i, C 
Flippoaates folio Ixyi], 

Hipophoia&SoIutio» folio Ixix» 

Hippocratis dicftum ,&reiufdem noniiulla pros» 
babilitas folio. eodem 

Hepialos quae vocctur* folio Ixxr, 

lufKcia quiA folio. xiiri h B • 

Intemperiesqu^ in altcratantu oppolitionc ex 

ceduni,quolocoponendae« fo.xvij» ij.C 
Intcmperies duplex ♦ fo.xxxv. i *G 

Inteperameti quod itra fimcatefic,nota»f4eo,ij.A 
Internaru particularu tepericexfucSioib^d^o^sf 
(ceda, tu ex coctnedu eas partiii afFecSu ,fo ♦xii.i.C 
Inasquales ede sempenes inrcgioibus inceperatis 
Inacqualem efle teperiem partiu quae (fo*eo,i]. A 
plilegmone laborant* fo ♦xlvij ♦ i » C 

In i) ? quae poteftate calida, frigidave iurjt, triagc* 
nera fpeihnd^i* f o J v* i) * A 

luniores medici in quo fuerint falG^ fo A 
In expiorado inedicamento abud quiddam obfer 
uandum ^ fo« Ixrj. i»C 

laphlegmoneduplicecflfe afFeflum, foJxitj« ij»B 
In explorando medicamento aliud obfcruandam 
foHo eodem. ( fo» ij. C ♦ 

In phlegmone quis fanguis primum calefiat quis 
deinceps* foJxvir) 

lo corpore quod phfegmoe laboret ^d maxime 
inBamecur qu id deinde. f o^codera 

Indolefcentia;^ in he^flids caufa, fo^bdx, 

In^qualitas reperameci in fanis indoles elt fo* co# 
Irixquaiis Inteperarnetlgeneradi varieronesXlxx 
Inhepialls cor fngusetcalor fimul letianufo. Ixxl 
In acceffiorsum inuafione febridtantes aliquos fri 
gm €t c^oircir. fimul fentirc, fo.eodem. 

lo llpyr l|s vtmncj papetuo ita yt in acccfBonibus 


fendru L fo^codem» 

Laduca cur fomno conducat, fo Jtx«.i A 

Laducasliiccum liberalius famptu Jiniilem vim 
babere cupapaueris fucco» fo jx* uA 

MoUesetdur^ manusad iJ\ 
Membrana^temperies» fo«xsxii)*i/i 

Medius fiue eufarcos ,quis fo*sfj. uA 

Mediu in toto animafium genere* fo •xi * i],C 
Mediuminhoimlpecie* fo,eodem*fi*C 

Medioaiter calensficoportetaquod liccum humi 
dumveiudicabis* fo<xis» LB 

Miningonfiue menJbrananim cerebricenipefies 
Medfj camlaginis et ligameti ( folio,xxxi r j* L A 
corporis, tcmperies fo*eodem * i\ B 

Melanchohcatemperamentavnde* fo*xlvi*i« C 
Me!ancholicus,quis fcxlvij ♦ i ♦ A 

Melancholici f uturi,qui fo«3d vi. ij» A 

Medicamcntorum natura duplex fo,E ij. B 
Medicametoru tertia queda (jjecies* fo,eo« i]« B 
Medicamentoruquartaipecies fo*co*4C 

Medicamentum Medese foJf]»i»B 

Medicamenta tantum^qua? fint foj vi i). A 

Medicamentum quando tepidu applicandu fit, 

Juando fr^idum fo . Ixiifj: i ♦ B 

'lifcercfimplidacorpora humani facultatisnoti 
elle, (ed dei uel naturaz fo«m, i»C 


NeruorDm tempcms folio xxxij^ij^A 

Notse difcer nedi a vetr iculo m^ sdiude/.xlfij.i^ B 
Nibil outrire nifi quod tota (iibftada rei alendae 
rnutaiil£ folio^h* L A 

Niicridbne ede ailimilatioeni perfeda fo Ji j'. B 
Nutrimentum triplex folio Ui], L A 

Nutriinetu corpys calefadc, fo, eode*i,A 
Nok oaturaequidintelligatGalen^ foJviiiJ^B 

Opiniones de^temperamcntis folio i* i]. A 
Opinio qu^a fo.eo j'j»A» Opinio alia fo^eo» 
Opinionis rationes folio ij» i. A (^*C 

Opinionis alterius rationes folio itj» i), A 

Opiniones quo pcccent folio^iiij, L B 

Opinio fcAatorum Athind folio v» i C 
Opinionis Athinei fedatoru error fo»vi.i.A 
Os fecuqueadmoduabfblutoiermue dicat f xi] 
Occafio erroris circa fenii teperie fo,xxv«i.B(i]« A 
Oflis temperies folio xxxirj L B 

Opiniones de notis ab oculis. fo* xliitj» L C 
Oem cibutaagercinoftru corp^^paa^flxXC 
Obleruadu in explorado medicameto fo Jxi) j*.C 
Omne immodicu exceflu adaliquidede foJxx» 
Oens febrepreter heAcea laborate ietiri fo^co» 

Plata vel alal qn optic fe habere . xiii].K A 
Polydeti ftatua tC* folio xx, ij* B 

^ TK OPERia 

Particularu omniu teperamcntsu fo» xxxii],i.A 

Parechyma £xxxij.i\B, Pii tepcries Cxxxir|.i»B 

Pituitsc temperies folio eodem» i* C 

Piguis macaue,co(ueiudinis alicui^roe quis fo» 

Piloru generadoru r6/o.xxxvij. i.B CxxxiiiJ4i. A 

Pili nigri vii* fo ♦co,i},B Pili flaui vfi,fo*eo«fj.C 

Pili albi vii fo,eo *ij.C Pili rufi vn f o^co.ijtC 

Pilicrifpivndc folioeodem» rj. C 

Pili in capite fupercilijs cilijCcp cur nobifcu cogc^ 

niti ^C. .C* fo^xxxviij.i], C 

Pili capitis etfiipcrcilioru cur (iibrufiXxxxixa A 

Pili cur boni fint inaemed & aafli» fo,eo« i ♦ A 

Pitui» cx cibis efle no cx corpore fo*xlvi. ij.C 

Pituitofus ab exacmetis quis ♦ fo,eo ♦ ij ♦ C 

Potefl:ate cflc quid fit» folio xlvirj* u B 

Potefl:atis aliud genus folio xlix. i. A 

Pituitam ctiam cum a ucnis dctrahitur frioidam 

fentiri *:* folio Ivij. fjB 

Piate calida,! duplid fbtu vctris examinata folio 

Proprietate quada tepcrameti cmV^ (Ix* ij» C 

natura? efl[e,qudc cum alfjs naturfs co(entiat,ab 

alijs diflentiat^ foliolxi u A 

Per (e,&primu,& nuflo intaccdente idem figi^ 

nificare foha Ixiiij. i.C 

Propria pbadonevnaefleinfingulisfo eo.ij:C 

Quomodo relpodedu ad intcrrogatione cui^te* 

peramenti fic homo vel bos fo.jiiirj, i).A 

Qiise tem-^cramcnta comitentur m duricies, mo! 
iides,craffitudo,gradh'tas fo, xxxii j»tj;A 

Qut fame meli^ ferSt ec qui difficili^fo,Kxxiii),LB 
Quge hkmc deliteicunt, cur pingula fo ♦ A 
Qaibus adeps caroqp pari modo audijquafibt 
teniperie fo»xxxv,i»A 

Qciibusadipis plus,qua Cinttempme fo,eo»tA 
Quibus cariiis plus, qua (int temperie fo*eo4 ♦ B 
Qu8C cepcrametis in pilorii differemiaproetate. 

Quales hninidu incolencium pilt» fo ,codem,tj,A 
Quaies slperaca plaga incolec(5piIf , fo ,eode jj* A 
Quales infantium pili* fo,codem. fj, A 

Quales ephcboru et puerorum pili, , i). B 
Quales pro corpomm naturis pili,]. B 
Quales in feigiia, regione hofes . fo.xli .ij . B 
Quae putrefcunf,quo calore caleant fo.xlij.i.A 
Qui meridiana plagam incolunt adidrfdo calore , 
calerejpropriofrigere, fo,codcm4\A 

Quid in uentriculi tcmperamentonofcendoadj» 
ueriendum. fo,eodem,rj,A 

Quodcalefacitnonomntno Cccare, fo.xlvijJ* B 
QuodacSu eft^perfcdum ef?c,quod poteftate 
imperfedum. fo. xl virj. i.C 

Quae maxie proprie ptate ce dicant . fo*co*rj, A 


Quae fecuda roc potcftate cfle dicanf , fo ,co.t],B 
Quatuor eilctorius corporis facultatcs fo. I. ij. C 
Quatuor corpoiis facukates a totafubftanciama 
Quodnuuietncccffeeftinco? Cnare. fo,eo*f)»C 
cocjuediiftrumetis aliquadiu (itmoratu* f >fi.i.C 
Quae affimilentur nutriiTienta,reiiqua medicame^ 
tavocari, fo.codem. fj* A 

Qai morbi imodicu vini potu comitet ,fo Jiij. i , B 
Quaecorp^noftrijnoncalcfaciut fed refrigeranr, 
ha?c e corporc non viiKi. fo Jv*i. B 

Quaedadumconcoquniui: refrigerare, poftqua 
funt percodia calfaccre, fo *Iix.i * C 

quandonutrimentumalfquidfit^et quando medi 
camentu,ecquo gencre nutrimetu» fo Jx ♦r|*B 
Quando a tiobis et quando ab extemis facietidS 
fitiudidum. fo.hi» rj^ 

qiaa ratioe frigidum calcfaciat. fo^xliii» i« B 

Queadmodu owTraetfa Xnu^deficicntisaffefli^ 
onis dogma uideri verum poftit» fo Jvii).i]3 
quoruintcrpofita IpadanoccrnaDU foJ?^e 
Quando doleant corpora 
quid dtP, et quld tardius sdceret tum generatim 
imnmembratim* S foJxvit)* 

Suftada Ijpiiciter quo eucratos dicaf* fo jdf),ij,i3 
Stirps vel aial qu6 dicat*codem «ii^C 
Benium f^idiffimum efle^ fo ,xxv, i).C 

Siccumcffcfenium» fo,codcm,i)*C 

Tempcraturac «equalicas in animalibus & plantis 
quaclit ♦C. foIioxifij^i.C 

Temperatidlnii hominis iTOtse fo^xx. i\B 
Tepcratiffimu hoiem eufarco oio efle»jFo«co.ii*C 
Taft^ excrcitandi adcalorem invaria matcria dif 
ccmendum, rado folio xxxj;C 

Tfpcrametiiccrebri 8c pulmonis fo.xxxijj^B 
Tepcramctu oflis & mcdullac fo ♦ co^ u C 

Tepcrametu partium cerebri fo* co ♦ UC 

Teperatos habit^ C modicc exercitcnc eufarcos 
Tota fubflratia quae fit flia» A( ee fo»xxxiii] .i) » A 
Tadu eu qui iudicatunis fitjOis acquifitittj calo 
ris vcl fr^oris expcrtc cflc deberC fo J xv, 

Tcrmin*^ altcrationis quis fl:atuendus fo. Ixix 

Vercalidijethumida vndeputatu. foax. fj.A 
Vt Vcrmis ficcus,cu fimflibus loquelis^quomo^ 
do accipicndum folio xi, ij * B 

Venae Iata2,caloris (^u,agufl:a2 cotra* fo.xxxifj» 
Vetriculi teperameri notas fo^xlij ^i ♦C (i}.C 
Viniicclerrimcnutrircacroborare fo.lix C 
Vinu cur valeter corp^ calefadat fo^ li). l C 
Vlceru (ponte nafcentiu caufsc fo. liifj ♦ i;B 

Venas etarteriasin phl^mone pretcr csetera va 
rie dolere folio ixvi» 

Vi^Tta fluxione quae deinde curatio folio Ixvi)» 
CO F I N 1 a C) 


Dc temperamirntiSjLibcT 


ThomaLinaao Angb imcrprete. 

j Onftai-e animalai corpora ex 
calidi/rigidij ficci , humidique 
mixtura ^ nec c(!e horu omjiiw 
pare in temperatura pordonc , 
demonftratum antiqufs abun^ 
deeft,lum philofophorumstij 
medicorumprarcipuis, Di>dmus autcm &nos de 
ijs,ea qu2c ^babilia fiint ui(a alio optrc * In quo de 
iis,qux Hyppocrates coflituftclemais , egimus» 
Hoc opcre , quod illi proxime fiiccedit ^omnium 
tcmpcraiiientorum differcntias^quot har^qualefc^ 
Cntjfiuc gencratim quis , fiue menibratim diuidar, 
inucnirc docebo • Sumam<^ ab ipfa nominum iruf 
tcrpretstioneprincipium. Cumnanq^ ex calidi/ri 
gidi,Gcd, & kimidi , tcmpcratura coflari corpora 
dicunt jde f|s,quac fummo gradu Cc fe habcnr,ipfis 
fcilicet clcmentis,aere, igni,aqua.terra,intcll!gendu 
aiuntCum uero animal,ftirpemue calidam Jiumi* 
midam,frigidamjuel Cccam efIc,non item. Ncque 
eftim ullum animal,aut calidu in fiimmo efle pofle, 
ut eft ignis , aut in fiimmo humidu , ficut cft aqua: 
pari modo ncc frigidum,ficcumue in fummo. Sed 
ab eo quod in mixtura pollet , appeliaabne (brtiri, 

A uccatibus 

uocantibiis nobwidl3iimi(Jum,uu]uomaior eft 
humiditatjs portio,riccum>m quo ficcitatis » Ita ue«« 
f o &C calidum , iuquo caliduni frigido plus^ualct, 
frjjgiduni uero m quo fvipidu calido prxftat» Atqj 
hic quidcin nominum mis cR* Nunc de tcmper a^ 
meiuis ipfis agendum.Eorum igirur, qiii tummcis 
dicorumjtumphilofophoru maximeilluilrcs fue# 
rcpplurimi ianc opinati (unt humidumcalidumcp 
cemperamentum ab humido&frigido diucrftjm 
cfle» Ac icrtium ab hijs ficcum 8C frigidum , diucrrf 
fiim a ficco bC calido^NonnuHi tamcn eortim humi 
dum fimulac frigidumtemperamentumquoddS 
efleconcedunt, atqj etiam ab hoc alrerum calidum 
Cccuqj.No tii aut hiimidii fimul &C cafidujaut frios 
dii pariter & ficci5 teperametij efle» Necp eni polfc 
aut humiditatc cu abundatc calore,cofiftere,aut cii 
frigiditate ficcitate: quippe abfijmi a ca!ido,cum fii 
perat^humiditatcmJtacp fieri,utcalidum fimul 8C 
(iccum corpus euadat, Eande ubi imbecillus in cor 
pore calor efl: , inco(5la,imperf ecfttcp mancrc ^ quo 
fieri,utcaIido uinccnte,(cquatur ficcitas, fngido lu 
perantCjhumiditas* Atcp hi] quidcm his rarioiiibus 
nixj^duastantueflc teperamctoru difl^erctias opi^ 
nai luQui uero ea quatuor autumant,bifaria his co 
cradicunt. Alii ft:atim id qd^primiS petut ncgantcSg 
nepc qd^nccefle fit humorc a calido fuperatc dige^ 
rL Ali j cotra sd quidc aflenriuntur^fcd alia rohe diSt 


fcnmu Ac pnoKS qiricfe calkl/ miiiius efle ,xic cafe 
faciat,a(lcuerat/rigidi ut refrigerct^cuti nirfite fiCf> 
tijat QcmfiC hui«i(^i,ut hunicdci, Proinde corpo 
ra , qusccalidaficcacp natura fint, queinadmodum 
)tgnis,ea quatenus calida funt,cxcalfacere,quatenus 
(icca ficcarc. Quas humida calidaqj /unr^uelut cales 
^qmjtixciio humedare niodo , fed etia calcfacere 
polle^utraq? qualitatehic quocp unu opus,idq^ ^ 
pnvi obtinctc.Haudquacp igit cocedcre fc% fi quid 
calefaciat,ide^t/nus & ficcare^imo fi calorihumidi 
tas Ctadiucfla , no calfaccremodo, ied ctiam humcs» 
<3:are»QLienTadiiiDdij balneii dulcis aqua**Sin ficu<s 
ti calidum, ita etiam ficcum corpus fif, ueluti ignis^ 
fliatim id tu calfecere , tii uero ficcarc » No tamen id 
calori referendu acccpjtii^led ficcitatijqna; fimul cft 
coiudla. Admonet aut hoc loco nos de hi% qui fub 
eftiuo (ble diutius fiit uerfati,atqp ita,ut crcdibile e 
arefadijac totu corpus fiocu,{cjuaiIiducp habetjcol 
Icrabilitcrcp fitiut . Quippc remcdiu his expeditu» 
& facile didit ^ no uticp fi bibcrint,(ed Ci calida', S^ 
dulcis aquai balneo utant , ta^ huiditatc, fiue ea c5 
frigore fir, fiuc cii calore, (liu munus obire ualente* 
Quippehue(fi:areeaqua*c6i!gat ♦ Adcudemodu 
&C ficcitace feper aiut ficcare^borcS enl qui ficcus & 
frigidus Ct uetus,oia ficcare ac rcfrigeiarc.idq? efle 
didui ab Homero, ut ueio humete dcCccat ^tinus 
agru autumboreasParimo SC pauperis lachryma, 

A ij &:alia 

6^ .' lia faccntapliarmaca Gccare pam -rr & refrig€« 
ot^Jtacp no effe necdlariuni^ fiquid fr^idomcft, 
/dern pronnm Sc humidum cfle » Nec licpid cali* 
duriijdein Ifatim & ficcum, Nccp igitur caKdum 
tempo aiiienmm neceflado efle ficcu, immo poflc 
aliquaado io aiiimalrs tcmpcramaito calidum qui 
dem plus u alcre,^ frigiduiiis& huinidum , ^ Oc* 
aim ♦ Quin ctiani turngenerationeni , turn alccras* 
f iooem, £um mutadoiiem , tx contrarijs in coritra^ 
m fieii, Quis enini eft , qui il dixerit albu alteratii, 
drniuustumcp eOe , propterea quod factum ilt cali 
du m,non lit r idiculusf Cum poftuler ca ratio ^ no 
cani,qy^ efi: in cdido &C fr ^ido,<ed qu^eft inco 
iorc, mutationem.Mutaturemm quod albumeft, 
in n5'grum,& quod'nigrum cft, in album . Rurfiis 
quod calidum cft,in frigidum , 8C quod frigidum 
cft,in calidum. Ad eundem modum,& quod hu* 
midum eft,in flccum, &L quod ficcum i^ft^in humi 
dum»Quippc fi dkas altcratum corpus efle, pro* 
prerea quod cum prius cf!ei humidumjnunc fit al^* 
bum , uel cum prius eflet ficcum , nunc fit nigrum, 
parum compos mmtis uidearis . Sin quodprius 
crat humidum,nuc fadii efle ficcu,aut quod prius 
crat nigrum,nunc cff^e(fhim album,aut etlam ex ca^ 
lido frigidum, aut ex frigido calidum » uticp iapcrc 
S)C conucnlentia dicerc ceiifearis» Quod enim muta 
tur,quatenus mutatur.eatcnus ccdacincontrariu 


c3cbct«Siquidcm ficbas hkjatit fit muGcus ^ of non 
niuCco didnius:& grammadcus,cxnon gr anima^ 
tico:& rh€lor,ex non rhctomBc mufico uero gra»' 
maticum^aut exgr ammatico mufkum , aut cx alio 
quod diacrfi (it gcneris/ieri aliquid dica-e.finc cft 
abiurdum, Poteft enim gui prius eracgramaticus, 
nunc muficus efle,iitic|i ff muCceagramaf icar ^dic 
cit,necgrammaticam s6iedt, At qui jGquid acquifi 
teratum in eo quod manctC' Ita non ex gramrjiarko 
fadus cftmuficus* Quippc nunc ctiani grsnimaci 
cus cdjkd ex non mufico, muCcus. Non cnim po 
teft poft^ muCcus eft fadus, etiani noninuficiis 
manercCumigitur omnis mutatiOj&abcomra 
tijs , 6Cex contrarijs fiatin contraria jmanileftijm 
cft etiam humidum fi quatcnus humidum efk^ mu 
tetur,mm ipfum ficcatum iri^tum quod id ficcet,fi'c 
cum diccndum cflfe • Definat igitur inquiut diccre» 
non poflc calidum,&f humidum temperamentum 
efle» Quippcc^IidumfimuI &fi'^idumcneidem 
temperamentum,aut humidum, & ficcum non po 
teft»Cum fierinequeat»ut in eodem tcmporc con# 
trariae qualiraces una confiftant: hiimidum ucro (U 
tnal &C calidum , pra?terea frigidum fimul ac ficcu^ 
profcAo in eodem confiftcrepoflfuntrfiaiti tumra 
tio ipla monftrauir, tum quac paulo fiiprapropofi 
tafuntexempla. Ac talis quidceft prioris propo^ 

A iij fitarum 

&am partiu braao, Altcra pars negat aKoiS a raiio 
ne efie , etia fl caiidu efticacidlmfi c qisa wor fit , ita 
iic I10 in frigidu modo^ (ed etia in huniidum agerc 
poSk i cilc tamcn tcmpcramciitu , quod cabdii fit, 
& huniidum, uticp cu in primo jftatmi aniniatis oy 
uiliumons fimiiljcalonfqj copia/n idi cocanr. Ra 
no uero hoiii non illud cH idc, quod ncqucac aliqii 
in eodc corporehuitiidipluscile^c^ iicci,&calidr, 
qi fngidi^Sed quod iub ciufmodi ftatu durare per 
pcino non poffit.Quippc digefto (emper per ca^ 
iidiim humorc,ipacio etia ficcu corpus eflFid. Atcji 
pro calido SC huoiido, calidura Cccumcp rcddi . Li 
hoc ipfiim quod calidii SC ficcr eft rcdditum^pro* 
4:cdente cempore frigiduficcumcpforcuibi^enim 
onineemCnodf corporis humoremcalorabfum*» 
«utus (ciiicetalimcnto,quod ipfumacccdcrat» Nc* 
queigitur miru putant tum intcr initia, ftatjmutgi 
gniciir animal conucnsre in idan^ aut humidii plus 
ncco^autealidu plusfrigido^tumteporis proceQ 
fii, qd prius' et at calidii 8C humidu , poftea poflc 
calidu edc 3C ficcu , acrquc ut poftca qua; ficca erar, 
ficcaq? euadere» Efgo eft quide aliqd^teperamctir, 
qcPcalitlu (ic B( humidir^ac rurfus aliud qd^frigidu 
fit & ficcu , ex iftis confinnatrNo poflc aut tepcrai 
mentoru diffireciasplures€fl€,Cpquatuor,cx his 


docerc couanf *Cu enJm qitattior ft atUMtur qualiia 
ccs , quse in fcagere inuice patiq^ poflinr ♦ Nempc 
calor^fiigus^ificcicas, hunnditas , oppofitioncsexia 
il:ieredu3s,alteraioqua caliduaduerfacur fr^ido» 
alteramm quahuniidupugnat cumlicco . boque 
quatuotiuon amplius effici coniugationes«Qyip^ 
pfc fcxficriscxquatuor inter.(ecopulaos , coniugia. 
Qiiorum duo fubfiftcfe no poue.Cu nccK hurni'* 
dum paritcr & ficcum , nec caiidum fimul oC firigi* 
dum daricorpus poffit* Rcliquas igitiir eilc qu^ 
tuor temperamentorum coniugationes-,duas humf 
das,& duas Cccas. Atquclias ciilorc, frigorequedi 
uifaSjh^ciimt quapcIegan£i(fimieorum,qui antc 
nos fuerc, lum medicorum , tum philofopliorum 
dchis dixerp,Qua?urro mihipra-tcrmifiileuideti 
tursHUnc adi^ciaidumrcor, unum igitur 8C primii 
id cft, quod tcmperatam naturam , quac* tamen n5 
uirtutc modo , (cd etiam uiribus rcliquis pra^ftat, 
non aduertcmntJmmo tancp iiulla fir,prorliJS omi 
(mn, Quancpncbquiquidcm dcrcliquisaliquid 
Cnehac docuctut . Quippc quod ucl in Calida tcm 
pcric calidu prcTualcai frigido , uel in frigida tcpe* 
rie/rigidti prxftct calidojid nc intellcxifle quidcm 
eft,niiiprms ponatureucratos fiuereperaras^ecj^ 
enlalioC^ ad hac tepcrata natura fiintintcd cii fanita 
tis tucndx uiclii inuefti^at , calidius iufto corpus 
iubcnicsrefr^erare^ueifrigidius excalfaccre, ucf 


nfi (ijs Iiiituidius ficc3rt\ml ficciusi humedarcSdtf 
iicet quo tcmperatum quendam mediocronc^fta* 
mmefficianr, id quod minus^ft ei > quod oupe* 
rat femper acquantes^Ergo quem affidue pcrfcquu 
tur 5 & quo femper relpicicntes intemperatos iia* 
tuscorrigunt, huncegoquidem primum ommu 
flatui ceniuerim»Hi uero tantum abefl ^ uc eius iiel 
meminermtjUt etlam totu praetereant « At no pra^* 
terimus inquiunt exhis aliquiUn calido enim Sc hu 
mfdo compreheditur » Ec quomodo non quinque 
efle in totum tempcramenta dixiftis : fcd quatuor, 
fi modo optimum non omiiiftis C Quippe duojs 
rumalcerum^autcxintempefatis ftatibus ncccfie 
cft unum efle omi(Ium,aut ipdim tcmperatum* At 
cgo quidem ex his^ qux ftatuunt , temperatii ipfis 
prartermifliivn certe fcio : uhi enim calidu &C ficcu^ 
uel jfrigidum &rhumidum,uel aliud quoduis tcm* 
pcramentum nominanc -rno uticp (ummas a nobis 
iiitelligi qualitates pofiulant Jmmo ex ijs , quaciu* 
perant ficri appcUationes uoIunt«Quod fi tempera 
tum ftatum oniitti nolunt,cer£e reliquorum alique 
omiiiOe conufncentur^Sitenim ficutipfi uolunt, 
temperatus llatus, is qui calidus eft , 8chumidus, 
On iidiis igicur illis plane eft^is qui frigido intemi* 
peramento aduerfeair, & ficco, Nempe in quo hu 
midum poUet & calidum» At idem inquiunt is eft, 
At qui heri poteftjUtfimuI cxuperet calidu, & no 


exuperetC& (upcretur (Tigidum, & no (iiperctur^ 
Si cnim tem^peratus ftacus eft , neutrum alieru im^ 
modice exuperacSin intemperaius,necefleeft exu 
peret altera oppofitionum pars» At hoc ipium in* 
quiunt temperati ftatus proprium eft , ut in ea cali 
dum praeftetfrigido^&huiTudumficcOt Quippe 
fi fngidum modice quidem uincat , non efle com** 
modum temperamentum ♦ Sin amplius cxuperet, 
iam udcp morbum exiftcre:aeque ut fi ueheraenter 
iudicandum. In principio quidem exiftere intem# 
periem.Siamplius augeaturjegrimdinem^fi pluri^ 
mum exuperet,mortem.Ceu uero de calido bC hu# 
mido nonidem fit iudicium,Quis enim non dicat, 
ubi ud calidum frigido ^ uel humidum ficco paulo 
quidem plus ualet,intemperiem ita fierijubi ampli 
ter exuperat jmorbum^ubi plurimum^mortemC" Si 
quidem eadem eft utrobiq^ratio* Alioqui nec qui 
calidi humidic^ immodice ftatus fijnt^eos uitio dc 
mus : nec qui calidi morbi cum himiore immodi*s 
co confiltunt,eos eflemorbos fateamur.Huic len# 
tentias aduer&ntes quidam Attalenfis Athenei fe 
datores,negantautcaIidum humidumcp ftatum 
uitio dandum,aut morbum uUum inuenin,qui ca^ 
lidus fit & humidus . Sed omnino qui uel calidus 
fif & ficcus, ut febris , uel frigidus & humidus ^ uc 
aqua intercus^uel fiigidus &C ficcus, ut mdancolia. 

B . Faciunt 

Faciiithic &rde annitemporibus mentionet Quo 
rum hiemem frigidam efleatcj^humidam dicunf, 
Eftatem calidam dC ficcam . Autumnum fiigidum 
& ficcum . Ver autem tum temperatum,tum ue^* 
ro calidum humidumcp appellant. Ad eiidem mo 
dum , & ex setatibus puerilem quide temperatam 
eflL\tum uero calidam humidamq^ : porro iudicari 
autumant eorum temperiem ex naturalibus adio^^ 
nibus,quae illa actate maxie fint firnice.Sed Sc mor^* 
tem aiunt animantium corpora ad frigidum ficcutf 
cp perducere,Quippemortuos Graece aAi^avTac^, 
uocari , quafi nihil humoris in fe habentes ♦ Vtpote 
tumcalorisabitioneeo exhauftos tumfrigore ri^ 
gcntcs.Quod fi,inquiiit,mors talis aft naturae, eer 
te uitajCum fit illi cotraria,caIida eft &C humida» At 
uero fiuita calidum quiddam atcphumidum eft, 
omnino quod illi fimillimum temperamentum eft, 
id optimii neceHario eft . Quod G. eft,nemine late^ 
re,idem quocp tempcratillimum cffc * Sic in idem 
recidere calidum humidumcp ftatum,cum tempcss 
rato,necaIiud efle temperatum , fiiie eucraton ftai» 
tum, q? caliditatem fimul Sc humiditatem poUetes» 
Atc^ Atheneiquidemlequauuh^fiint rationcs, 
uidecurc]p& Ariftotclis philo(bphi,&^pofteum 
Theophrafti, SC Stoicorum eadem efle quodamo 
do (entcntia Jta teftium quoque numero nos terrii^ 
tant » Ego uero quaDadinodum Ariftoteles de ca 


ffdaliumidacp tempeiie (enfcrit , in pfogrcnu (i res 
poftuletjfortaflc explicabo, uident cni eu no recfle 
accipere. Nunc id again ,ut eos qui ficfentiunt. 
in quo feipfos fallant , doceam ♦ Mox rem totam 
xn unum coadlamcaput demonftrem«Cum*cnim 
caiidum , & humidum , atque ctiam eucraton exi 
fhmant uer efle^hicfemanifdlededpiunt* Nam 
neque humidum efl: ficut hiems^nequecalidum 
iicut a^ftas , quare neutrum immodice ♦ Cum tass 
men ipfis autoribus excefliim quendam indicet 
quoduis talium nominum.Bifariam autem (unt 
decepti, primum quidcmquod inquatuoranni 
tcmporibus,quartam tcmperamentorum coniu^s 
gationem inuentam omnino uoliit . Deinde quod 
id ea ratione condudunt,quodfithiemequidem 
calidius , seftate uero humidius , ucrum nec quartf 
tam in temporibus anni ftatuere temperamenti 
coniugadonem eft nccefle,nifietiam talis appa* 
rere,& contulifleid cum temporibus luriufq^ po^s 
fids,non magis id humidum & calidum, quam fri 
gidumprobat& ficcum.Sienimcalidum humi« 
dumque excefl!us cuiufdam nomina fiint , non 
poteft,nec ipfis quidem autoribus, uerum efle 
quod uer in omnibus medioae fit* Siautemeo 
quod ^ftate humidus eft, hicme uero calidii^ 
us , idcirco humidum eft & calidum* Quid 

B 1] cau/ie 

caufe eft ,quo minus ftigidum id ficcumqp putes» 

propterea cjuodaeftate cf l frigidius , & hietnc Cc*' 

caisC^uel quaiti fibi facit (brutionem,ut unam paric 

oppofitionis ab hicme, aiteram ab aftate accipiat» 

Quippe cumab utrocp in utracp cppofitionum 

parte diflideat^non ex dimidio coDationem, fcd cx 

toto habcrc debebat . Atqui fi ita fiat ccntraria illt 

inenk diccmus,.Nam calidum erit &ficcum^ con 

feratur cum hieme, fr^idum & humidum , It cum 

aeftate ♦ Ex neutraigitur coltacione , fi modo imc* 

gra eftjCalidum & humidum erit«Sed (i iHis licet ck 

utracp oppofitione fiimpto dimidio, calidu id hu* 

midumcp aflerere^nobisquocpadalterum dimia 

dium trc^re,atq? id fr^idu & ficcum diocrejquid 

niiicebit,SciIicet ficcum, ut ad hicmem/rigidum, 

U£ ad adftate.Omnia ^itur hac ratione uer erit,hu* 

midum,ficcum,calidum frigidum. Atquiillorum 

ipfbrumfetendainon pcmintquatuor qualitates 

eade inre polIere*Ergo neq? a?ftati,necp hlemi uer 

comparare eft arquu . Sedpotius ipfiim per fr eft I 

marc* Necp cnim hicmem iplam ea de caufa humi^ 

dam e{Ie,& fi-igidam dicimus , quod reliquis tema» 

poribus humidior fr^idiorq^ fit . Immo id illi alia 

quoq^ radone acddit JScd quod humidiias in ea (u 

perei ficcitatem,&frigiditas calorem, propterea 

frigida dicitur,atc^hLimida. Ad eundem modiTm 

bC arftas jquum iu ca l.umor uinciiur a ficco,6sf fri^ 


gidum a calido , ipfa quocp calida didtur & ficca, 

Siquidem aequumccnfeoquatuor anni temporu 

quodlibet cx fuaptc eftimatum natura,non ex alte«t 

rius comparatione calidum/rigidum , humidum, 

ficcum ucnominari deberc ♦ Quin etiam {t adhanc 

formulam eftimeSjapparebit tibi ucrelfe omnis 

cxcc(Iusplaneinmedio«Cum neqp ficutinhieme 

plus ualeat in eo frigidum C^ calidum^nec^ iicut in 

geftate,minus« Ad eudem modum ficcitatis hu mi^ 

ditatiicpsequabilitatemineoipedes, Necpfcilicec 

in eo ficut in acftate pra^ualente ficco » neqp Gcut iii 

!hieme,exupcrante humidoProinde redc ab Hyp 

pocrate eft didlumruer efle faluberrimum , ac mini 

memorbis , qui mortem affeant , obnoxium» Eft 

& autumnus ut q^ airftas minus calidus^Cc uticp ^ 

hiemsminus fr^idus. Quare hac ratione nec cdi^ 

dus abfoluto iermoneeft»necfrigidus*Quippecu 

ambo Cr,ac neutrum ad fummum»Ca?terum alteru 

in eocft incommodum» QuodetiamHyppocra* 

tis illafentcmia fignificauit:Cumeodem die modo 

fi^s nos afFicit,modo calor uiget, autumnales ex 

peAandi morbi {iinuAtcp ea rcs cft , quac maxime 

autumnu morbifeu facir,inequalis ipfa temperics» 

Itacp iion rede frigidusjficcufc^ dicitur . No enim 

frigidus cft,fi ipfe per (c fpedetur,qd'tamen hiems 

eft.Sed ubi cum a^ftate confertur,uti'c^ illa frigidis; 

or;led nccaequabiliter temperatus,ficut uerjmmo 

B icj inhoc 

mhocmaximeab iDo tempore diflidet «quod me^ 
diam temperiem & equalitatem perpetuo pare no 
ietuat. Quippe meridk multo eft calidic»:,^ mane 
aut ueiped, Nec in humido & ficco medium omni 
no ftatum opuiiec,quemadmodum & uer« Sed ad 
ficcius deuetgit* Ab asflate uero etiamih hoc uinci 
tur*Nontamen tanto interuallo , quanto fn caIore« 
Ergo patcre arbitror^ec autumnum abfbluto fejs 
mone,& dtra exceptionem frigidum & ficcum,fitf 
cutillis placet^dicendumefle. Cum neutrii ad (iim 
mum fic^ieduincat in eo ficcitas humiditate • Qua:^ 
re ratione mcrito ficcus appelletunln calore uero & 
frigorejjmixtum quiddam ex ambobus,& inequas 
kftatuatur*Proindefi quatuor temperamenioru 
coniugationesin quatuor aoni tempora diftribui 
uoIunt,&ian£ Q noniblum ueri,calidum Jiumidu(^ 
ftatum male aiEgnafie, fed et iam autumno frigidii 
&ficcum ♦ Quan^fihuncquoc^cocedamus fi:i« 
midum caliduqp efle ♦ Non enim fi quatuor in tcm 
perie coniugationes in tomm funt , iam omnes cas 
inquataor anni teinpora di^cn&i nece{Iumeft< 
Sed fi quis hoc in mundo eft ordo, ac prout mdi^ 
ns eft^non prout peius omnia fiint di(poitta, pross 
babilius fit plura quidem ex anni temporibus tem 
perata eile fadajununi uero,li modo aliquod, inte 
peratum, hi uero contra oftendere conantur , nul<« 

lum eomm 

lum corum efle temperatu ♦ Sed «eccnario in ipfis 
exuperare alias adidum^alias frigidum » Etnuncii 
itafors mlic/iccum^unchumidum* Egouero can 
tum abeftjut aut uer, aut fi quid tempcratum eft ca 
lidumatcp humidum dicam,utquod plane contra 
num eft,id affirmem,omnmm aeris temperameto 
rum peffimum id efle, quod humidum eft & cali^ 
dum*Quod fine temperamentum,in quatuor anni 
temporibus inuenire nequeas.In graui &C peftilen^ 
ti aeris fbtUjinterdum incidit, ueluti quodam lc co 
Hyppoaates comemorathis uerbis : pluebatper 
seft um imber largus affidue ♦ Id nmc^ eft humidi 
& calidi flatus proprium,ut in seftu affidue pluat, 
Quod fi ud tanmm seftus Ct,quemadmodum in* 
naturaHter (ehabente acftate,uel pluat» Sed in frigo 
re,ueluti hieme lolet , fieri nequit , ut is ftams caH* 
dus fic & humidus» An igit finc morbis erat aeftas 
illa,in qua pluifle dicit in caloribus largum imbreC^ 
Atqui carbuculos in ea f uifle narrat,putrefceiibus 
fcilicet in corporc excremetis,ac &nie quanda,qusc 
calida humidaq^ imodice fuerat gignetibus, Intelli 
ges id ex ipfi dicfHoe,fi tota tibi afcripfero ea fic ha^» 
bettBrat 1 cranone carbuculi eftiui,pluerat per eftS 
laigo ibr!,idq^affidue» Acdderat aut magis auflro* 
Ac fubcratquide (ub cute {anies,quae coclufa jcalu 
it,ac pruritu excitauitmox pufuk uduti ambuft us 
(utobortae,uricj (ub cutefiituilic tueruhicminus 


mpotc unotaiitumequatuor tanporibus muta* 
to^alii fuit. Quod fi duo , tria ue iint mutata , auc 
mmi totus annus calidus^humidul^ fuerit^eceC? 
fe eft,magna peftiletia (uccedat.Cuiufmodi in ter^ 
rio epidemion,id eft,graflanaum publicemorbo^ 
rum narrat» Apponam autem primum, quse de tess 
porum intempeftiuoftatu lcripfii : deinde dehoa^ 
minum^qux iubiccuta eft corruptela* Aduertas au 
tem animum in omnibus udim^eflimeCp primum 
cuiufmodi tes fit calida,humidac]p temperies , dein 
de ^ neceflario in ea omnia punrelcant, Indpit igia 
tur 1 lyppocratis narratio in hunc modum: Annus 
Aufttinus pluuius a uentis in totum filens,deinde 
totius ftatus particularem radone iubijcit^ crebros 
imbres in calido &raufhKio ftatu fuiflcfcribens» 
Mox uniuerium iermonem in unam iummam co^ 
foens^Cum fiiiflet, inquit, totus annus auflr/nus 
humidi:^5& mollis^hacc & hacc inddetut,quSE uti^ 
cp omnia f n hoc libro lcripfifle Ctlongumjicer au« 
tem cuilibuerit interrio epidemion mcmbraum ea 
l€gcre,ac in unum caput omnia redafla uidere:ne* 
peputredine maximam • Cuius etiam ipfius Hy p 
pocrates no raro nominarim meminit» Alias fic feri 
bes: Btat autem & fluxio ipfi coIleAa,haud fimilts 
puri* Sed alia qua:dam putredo ac fkixio multa ua 
riac^. Alias fic : Ecin pudendis carbunculi apftiui, 
ttmialiaquae putrediies appeIIantur,Etquodex 


hac piitredline muftis qufdembrachium,& cubicus 
totusdccidehtrmulcis tcmur ueliura cfi nudata, to 
txS^ pes« Quin cuam magtu oflxum camium,ncr^ 
uomm^rdculoru prdapfus indderunt . Deniquc 
nullum exafFcAibus^quos faipiit,ihuenjas, quiib 
boles putredinis nonfit • Quippe cum ncc a ucco 
putrefieri quic^ fit aptura,nec a frigido* Intclligas 
id & cames dC reliqua quxcuncp aneruari ab bomi 
nibus ibIent,ob(erues haec iale,ha[xm'uria,ha:c ace<» 
ro.haec alio quopiam exijSjquae ficcant,commode 
prdeparari.Deprehendas & Borea, qui ficcus natu 
ra & frigidus uentus efl: , onuna ^ diutiiljme imc^ 
puuriaduraretContraputreicerefacillime Auflri-s 
noftatu.Eftcnimis uentus calidus & humidus» 
Adeonos cotum contra,^ hi, quicalidum dC hu* 
midumuerautumantdecem/musXum ne^talc 
fjt,nec]p fiel!et>uticp iaiubre eflet) auc fanitati acco^ 
modumihi autem & takefle uolunt , &proprerca 
edam falutiferumialicet utrobic]ppeccates , tum in 
hf]s quaefenfiiperdperc tumquaerationceflintcl 
ligere.Cum fcnfu id manifefleliceat planc tempc:* 
ratum aduertere«Necminus rationeiUudinuenire, 
quod propterea eft aptum fanitati,quode quatuor 
nullain eo cualitatum exuperec.Quod fi liel calidi^ 
tas eius frigiditatc miilto cxcederet , uel humiditas 
(iccitafem^utuarns putrcdinibus obnoxium* Sic 
omniu anm' temporum morbis eflet maxime opor 

C tiinum^ 

tunum, Nunc quatiior qualitatij aiMonis a^cjual! 

t5»s,& medisc temperaturse dm^Si Mvhnmtis 


husda perfuafitjUt calidu hunudu^ ucr dVt iudica 

fferTNepe qd^quacuor tqpcirametoro c6ii?gia quae 

tuor ani tqjoribus adaptare uoluerut . Porro id in« 

de acddir^qd^primu oim teperamecoru, idcB:^ me 

dium ipfum pmerniifount.Quin ctlf iiiduUj mf 

dicamentorunijomnium] denicpreruin difFerendtf 

^s^in has quatuor coiugatiocs reducut,ex quo tm^ 

nifeftu eft,quantopere paru rc<Sse,fallacefS^ deho 

sninis naturarones,niedication!bus obfint* Satiut 

cgerat duoru alterij $ aut prorlus dulmodi radoncs 

non acrigifie:led totu €^erientia£ cocedere,aut pri 

tisinlogica fpeculatioe exercitatufuifle* Quippe 

qiu nec cxperietiae eft attentus,& naturalia dbeorctf 

mata aggredic,priu^ ratione,qua ha[!C inueniat co 

uenlenter €?ccrciut,necdBe eft in dufinodi cauilla fit 


diiputet.T5 Ayf ftotde tefte aduocer, male folicer 

acdpiedo ea qua?pr^pi?»Hic enl calidS, fr^'dii, 

humidum,& flccum,iiaultiplidter did nouit.Bli no 

quafi multipUcKer^fcd quafi ad cundem perpe^ 

mo modum did uelit^acdpiunt* Qum etiam is 

quodafiqmdlua &naturalicaIore^aut alieno^St 

acquiiititio caliAim (it,non eflc sdcm ifidicauk* 

fili hoc^ocp pcrp«a acdpfut* Ad hxc Ariftote^ 


les,itemcpTheophraftus,qu6 tefpicientcstcpcra 

tam ihrcfnpcrata ue natura efle 9 fudicare oporteat, 

diligenter prodiderunt»llIi ne id quidem mtclKgur» 

Sed cuin hos audium aniinal calidum humidumcp 

diccre,autpuellitempcnehumida, calidamqp efle, 

nec queadmodu ea dida fint, inteiligur , & ilupidi 

ad quatuor anni tempora ratione tranlFerunt* Ceu 

uero idem fit^ac oon longo interuallo diffides pro*: 

pria aliciiiiis temperic humida, calidamc^ cfle , aut 

draindati nobis aeris ♦ Ne<^ enim fimiliter dicitur 

animalis tempcfies calida BC humida, ficut aeris 

cemperamcnm calidu dicitur 8c humidu, Qua? igic 

£t oainiomhorSoccafio iam dicamjdarccpoftenss 

dljhis prj^f diHjqui intend ede uoliait ^ adgwm 

crrorem in ijs ^ qyseintcr ioiiialogic^ ^ecuiacio*» 

ssis traduiUTjmaKimoitmi errorum occalionem fie 

d^fomHkqim ommbus, quae uel mmCds ais&us, 

52e! in uie^ adtionibus perperamgerunturs fbphifis 

mata iucccdunt* Atcp haec quidem (ophilmata illi 

isirioiucceduntjquod udc^ no rededefiniiu cft de 

calidfi fgnificarionibus ♦ Sed duobus tandi modis 

didid pytatum , Qtiorurn alteroiignificetur^ qdf 

fynccmm immiKtiini &iimples eft^^ltero^quod 

mmisrioeciiluocontrariojidiiiperati Quod au^ 

tcmSiaiteratTitemperiemaimaltera corrftxemxrs» 

iubinde akeram earum calidam proco>quodcft 

calidiorcm pronunciamus, id non meminerunt« 

C ij Atqui 

i^tquiadeum modum animdtihaucteribuscdlida 

S^humidafuiindicfla Non propnetemperaturas 

gratia^Scfemonc abibJutoJmnio adiiirpcs, SCdc 

mortuacollata . Quippe demortuis & fifrpibus, 

anunanua caiidibra^humidioraq^ (unt. Quin eriam 

cxanimantibus ipfis fpecianm inter fe collatis, ca* 

nis ficdor cft ,homohumidior ,<At iG formicac wcl 

aptcaneniconfefasallas ficdores, hunc humidiore 

inuenies t Ita idem anunans praeut homo flccum , 

prscut apicuiahumidum fiierit«Rurius ad homine 

collatiim calidum^d koncm fr^idum erit. Nec mi 

tum,fi ad aiiud atc^ aliud compatatum, contraria ii 

miii dioi de & patttitr^Necpidalicnum eft, (i idem 

corpus fimul calidum ,frigidumcp dixerisv Nifi ad 

idem coafercns fic dixeris, Quodenim incommo:» 

dum,C cundem hormnem dextrum,(ini{bumc^ di 

casS' nifiad eundem conferens ita dicas t Cum ad 

alteram dextnim e(Ie,ad alterum finiftruaviihil fit 

abfoni Sic igimr 6C canis humidus paritet &C fic^ 

cus^prictcrea calidus fimul 8^ frigidus eft , non ta* 

menad idcm coUatus» Quippc ad hominem fico^ 

fcras,ficcuseft,ad formicam Jiumidus .Rurfus ho» 

minis re(pe<fhicalidiiscft,Iconis frigidus jQuin 

ctiam calidus eft,utiuuens , cummormus non am, 

plius fitcaiidus .Noncalidus,utadalterum C fiita^ 

uh >cancm comparatus . Atcp hsec quidem oirinia* 

pcr collationem inter (e dicuntur » Qja? ucro ut in 


animaiitium gcncrcconfaunlur Aliaratione» ficu 
tictiam quaecuncpin aIiauaanimalium(J3eac. Ca 
nisnanc^ ad formicam&apim cft humidus,m 
animantium generc eft ficcus. Rurfus ipfbrum i p e 
datim,canum,hic ficcus,illehiuTiidus,alius (ut fas 
eft cani) temperatus . Ac didum quidem a nobis 
eft,in (ecundo de puKiium agnitione deiali nomi* 
num ulii difFufiffime. Nccefie tamen uidaiu- nunc 
quocp {iimmatim aliquid , quod adrcm propoCta 
iit utile,dicendutn ♦ Quod abfbluto fermonc, nec 
adaliud uUum collacum/iccimi uocatur, id in folis; 
clemcntis cft,igni,terraq;, Sicut humidum in aqua 
8CaCTc. Adeundem modum & decalido , frigido 
lenU€ndum.NuIIum enim caetcrorum prorius ca* 
lidum frigidum uc eft,ied Ibla elemcnta j quicquid? 
praeter hajc ceperis,cx his mixtis conftat . Eoqp fe* 
cundo fignificationum gencrc, calidum , frfgidum 
ue cftjHon abfoluta rationc , ucluti (y nccrum , & a 
mixtioealicnum. Immo ueluti uel calidum latgius, 
fr^idum partiuSiud frigidum largius , calidu par« 
tius fit ibrritum reliquorum quiduis calidum , fri=* 
gidumuedicitur^ Acduo quidem fignificata calf* 
ai,frigidi,humidi,& fi*cci,h2ecfunt:alcerumcx ab* 
(bluto fcrmoneIoqucntium,mixturacarens,8<: (yn 
cerum : akerum excontranis. quidcm mixtis. ccn ^ 
ftans,caeterumex pollcntis in mixturauomincap* 

C iij olcum» 

okiim^rnelaquscqyld his Gmit eft,hunfiidum dicis 


noinjhateoajlaier, mioorempordone huniidiliint 
ibmta^Jdiaioreoi&ci.Eocpeiafoodi omnia ficca 

dicuntiir^Formica uero ficca eft ^ &C uemiis hnmU 
dos&llicet isf luiit anifualia, Rurfiis inta ipfos uer 
rms^alms ficcus^alius hiimidiis» Idqiieiiei abfeliite 
loqimidOjUtiiermiSs ucl dmimipmm iiermlcom 
p'dmmX)mtm hQcipSim qu:od dk/inusait %m^ 
mis ficciss ^ ut homo caliduSa ut cmis Ri§im s i nid 
qiils rc&accipiat , 8C prius intelligit qutd fibi ue« 
lit.^iieceli€ ■dlomiiSfermssiem confuadat. Eft axi^ 
mn rafle acdperey M qood in Ucundo de pullibus 
agtiolcmdis didtiirjUiiumquodcp lecondugeiius^ 
oci Ipcdes noo modo calidy msliigidiiiii^ hymidua 
{f.^mm u€iM eriam m^um, pzmum, cekre, tar^ 
dsocre^TuediuiiKg Gt * Verbi gratia , ammal calidiJ 
mm Sipra medlum cempedem ariimaljeqniHH cafi 
fomquoquegenere ipecieue raedia&ncca^quae 
G^celyiiimeira diditnr * Qiiippe quss a lumiiiis 
m €0 g£rieire& Ipccie finibii^ ^qjdmt diHant Ac 
gmus quidlell mkml t lpsac?-.-i:^'uSs bos,caois» 
Mediamtefiiperieiu toto anfm^auni genercpo^ 
snoeftidcnifn iri {eqiiensibos demonftrabit • Me 


cufirconuocantjLatincputOsquadratum» h pofi» 
ro cft,qiicm nec gradlem direte, ncc crafliim pot 
fis^fed nec calidum » Kecfrigidum , ncc alto quoiiis 
noieex ijs,quae exceflum defcdlom ue indkaiit ap 
.peIlarevQyi%Hs iuper hunc fumtjis pxorfus caji* 
dior/r^idior, humidior, ficciorue cft • Noniinatf 
tur aut raiis partim ablbiuto femione^partim no ab 
Ibluto. Abioluce quideloquet i,qiion!a calidiis^fe 
giduSjficcuSshuidusueefie ^ minime iini altcui prf^ 
uatim collatus dicit ♦ Ita enini canis abibloto quide 
fermoe , prout uiddicet cuipiaopinio di ^ animal 
Gccum dicitur.No uti«^ alicui coparatuSjUerbig^a 
tiaf ormicae.Non ablbluto uero , una quidc ratiois 
ne^quod (alicet fynmietro,id eft ,coequaIi , & me* 
dio totius Cptdd coparatur* Akcra «cro ^ quod cu 
eo qd' intcr omnia animalia coequale, & media te^ 
perieeft,quicqiud id fl^tuaSjConferair.Efgo iapa 
lam fic,quod unumquodcp eorum , quas (ic dicun 
tiu^ios id uel uni cuicun<^ comparantes^cah^dum» 
irigidu^humidu ue, aut (iccu ,ut ad illud didmu$> 
platano^cupreftb^ficu^Generi ucro,iit atumali, uel 
fdlicet, quaeablbluto (crmoncdicuntur,, qua? im* 
permixtas fiimmascphabere qualitatcs diximus ac 
demeta uocari ♦ Qum cti^ qualitates ipfas cft quaa 


do corporibus ijs,quae affcdia qualitatc {unt "fJnnK 
tcrappellannus. Verum dehocmoxagctur»Sedad 
reiii propoiitam^cum quaLftatea(&dacorporath« 
fariam dicuntur , cofyderandum arbicronn quacp 
dieiloe, queadmodu utamiir appcUatioibus^ utru 
tic m &iplcxaliquid & immixtu iudicantcs, an ue 
lutt ad fy mmen-on ciuftlem gcneris^uel ipcciei co^ 
fercntes^an uclud ad rcm quamlibet , ficut cum os 
ficcum didf nus^aut fihgidum^fbluto ita (ermone 
nominantes,no adiedro Ieom*s,canis , aut hominis* 
Palam nanc^cilv quod ad umueriam natura omni 
um qua? ilinc in mundo corporum reipicicntes ali 
quid oondpfmus mcdium,cum quo conferentcs , 
ipfum&cumdicimus* Atfi quisleonis^udcanis, 
ucl hominis os ficcum e(& didt, liquet hunc rurfiis 
efqiiodih ipfis animalium oflibus mediumcf id 
comparare«Eflcp quoniam umucrfbrum animalis^ 
unijalijs magisjalijs minus ficcaoflafunthic quoq^ 
osaliqtiodinaliquo ammaliumgencre intclligen«& 
dum,quod media tempcrie it » ucrbi cau^. homi* 
nis, atcpi hutc reiiqua coUata » alia humida , alia ficca 
appellanda * lam in ipfis hominibus alius osiiccu, 
alius humidumhabere dieeair,uti<^ ci,qui medius 
eft,ui in homiinbus coflatus, Quod uero in omni* 
bus quae fiint , quod medium intcr cxuema cfl , id 
fymmetron,atcp in iUo gencrc , uel fpede tempcra^ 
tum fir,in omnimihi fermone fubaudiendum per* 


petuoeft,quan^ ficin didioneomiflum^Atcpcu 
hax qujckm fic (e haheaut, ubi abquis hanc, ud illa 
humidam^calidam ue temDeriem afFirmat, togma 
dus tfk cpiemadmodumdixenc, ucru nehunc que 
pwm uni dcfimco comparans Plaeom uerbigmia 
Theophraftu, m fccundumgcnus quodlibct, /pe 
dem ue coUatioaem f aciens» Quippe uel ut homi # 
nem^url uc anima!,uel uc fiibftantiam abfblute» tci'^ 
tium enim fignificaaim cuiuiuis calium nominum^ 
quod Omplex ci&impemitxtumc^ diximus ^ id m 
mmis. (ubilantns nonelLSed inipiis primis,quas 
etiam uocamus eiementa Jtacuni quodc^ afFedto^ 
aim qualitate corporum trifatiamdicat nobisad 
propoiitamde temperamentis tradadonem,duo:« 
buscantum eftopus ^ucquiuelad unumquodli:^ 
bettudadmediumeiuicicmgenerjs comparemus« 
Quoniam autemmulta generaiunt^quemacFmo^ 
duin utiqp( & indiuidua , potericmultis modis ide 
€oq3xis,& calidum, &irigidum> & humidum , & 
iiccume{&« Verum cum um' cuilibet comparatur 
adnKKiumman^eiliim dlcontraria deeodcmdi 
ecrelicejre.Vclu£iDioiiemTheonequidc,& Mcn 
ncweiicdorcm Ariilone, & Qaucone huiziidiotf 
rem, At cum ad mediumeiuf3em getieris , ud (jpc^ 
ddfit collatio^hic iam cortfiindi,conturbanc]^,qui 
parum cxercitati (unt,felent. Idem nancp homo hu 
midus iimul &L calidus efle poteft , Ced non minus 

D ficcus 

Rccas SC fr^'clus. Vcmm ficcus quidera & fr^i^ 
dusad medfocr/s tempcramcnti nominemcoUas» 
tus,humidus autem& calidus^adalmd quoduis 
animal ftirpemue,aut fubftantiam comparatus, 
uerbigrada ad aiiimal,ut apem SC formicatad ftir* 
pem,ut oIeam,ueI ficum,ud laurum» Ad aliam ue* 
ro quampjam fubftantiam,qua! nec animal iir, ncc 
p!anta,ut lapidem^ferrumjUd ars Jnhis uero collai» 
ciei dixeris» Quae ad apem,ud formtcam eft,ad ah> 
quid eiufiem gcnms^ Sixnili modo quae ad llrirpc 
fit quamb'bet,Eft enim fiipra animal ftirpis genus, 
quemadmodum finefuperioris, ^ftirpium gene 
ris fiint Iapis,ferrum,& acs:uocetur tamen pro do;*^ 
cendi compendio ad omogenes, id eft, rem eiufde 
generis, omnis eiufmodi comparatio * Illud modo 
/nea determinatibiis nobis quod ubi fimpliciter 
iubftantia quaepiam eucratos,fi*uc temperatadi^ 
citur,tum hac jdia ficdor^alia humidior, 8C alia fri» 
gidior,aIia calidior , eo loco eam qua^ ex contrarrjs 
«equa prorfiis inter (e portione coeuntibus coftet, 
ciicraton,fiue temperata nominari,Qua:cunqp ue^» 
ro ab hac defidunt,fiiperantc^ aliquo eam fiiperan 
tis nomine uocari: ubiuero ftirpem,animansueul 
kun eua*aton dicimus,nequa^ in ea di^ftione fimis 
pliciter contraria inter fe comparamus»Sed ad natu 
ram ucl animalis , ud ftirpis referimus .Ficuuerbi 


graaatcmpcratam diccntes,cu talis fjt, quaKs rnaxi 
me ficas elie natiira debeat • Rurfus canem, (iiem , 
cquum,8^ hominem, cum coru quifo^ pro fiia na^s 
tura optime fehabcatioptime uero lehabere ali^: 
quid profuanatura ex ipOs fundionibus inteUjgi^ 
lur, Quippe anima],ac llirpem quamlibet, tu opti 
me fehabere diciiiius , cum optime &am fundio** 
ncm obeunt Jicus cnim uirtus^Jonitafip eft, opti 
mos,plurimo{cp ficos afferre, Ad cundcm modii 
uitisyplurimas opdimiJc^ uuas pcndcre « Equi ue^ 
ro , ^ uelodffime currerc . Canis , ad uenauoncs 
quidem, S>C tutdam ^ animoOOimum , ad dome^^ 
fticos cp mitiflimum efle ♦ Harc igitur omnia , ani* 
malia dico SC fl:irpes,optimam, mcdiamqp haberc 
in (uo gcncrc tcmperiem dicemus^non utiq^ abibsf 
luto (ermone,cuni pariras exada contrariorii in i]s 
ficScd cu ea mediocritas,quae ad poteil:atcm refcr 
tur,his adfit.Eiuimodi aliquid^S^ luflritia cfle dici 
mus,n5 quae pondere,& mefura ♦ Scd quae eo qd' 
pro dignitate coucnit arqualitace cxpIorat.Eil igit 
temperaturaj xqualitas in omnibus temperatis ani 
malibusj3:irpibufcp,non ca,qua2 cxpari clcmen^ 
torum comiirtorum fpedatur mole,fed qux tii ani 
malis,tij fliirpis naturac conucnit.Couenic aut alias , 
uthumidu (icco,8i frigidum calido prajpondcret* 
Nec]p enim fimilem habcre tepcratura dcbcnt, hos= 
mo , leo,apis,&r canis « Ergo ad quanrcntc cuius fit 

D ij temperanietl. 

ranperaniend , honu>,€quus,bos,canls , aliiici ue 

quodiibet , non eft abloluto fermonc refpondeii* 

ctum. Non etitm fien poteft,y t qui ad ca,quaE muJ 

tis modis fiint di'da,uno modo rdpondet, non co 

arguatur.Oportet ^iiur duorum iteram , aut oes 

percenfene difFerent!as,aut percontatum prius > de 

qua rogauerit,illam (biam diccrc Nam fi ut in ani:« 

malibus , cuius eflet tcmperamenti rogabat , ad id 

quod medio eft inter omnia animalia temperamen 

to rdfpf ciences^refpondere oportet,Si abfolute, ati? 

q^ ut ad omnem {ubftantiam.Sic iam cotraria,qiiae 

funt in €0 comparare inter ie oportct atcp aeftima* 

re,haudqua^adactionem temperiem referentes, 

fi:dad elementorum portioncs,finhu!C cuipiam 

fingufatim comparans,rogabat « utiq; ad iUud (blu 

coiiferendo eft rcfpondendum » lam minus etiam, 

fi indiuf duorum cuiuflibet dioiiis ,uerbi gratia ud 

huius canis,rogemiir,qu3Bnam iit iubibuitia? tcm 

peratura, cft fimplex danda rcfponfio ♦ Dabk eni 

hincfi)ph{ftis,adcaJunrTniam occaGo non parua» 

Nam fi calidf efle tempcramcnt!,& ficddionem 

dfca£,facfle licebit illis , partim homincm qucmlfrf 

bet,qui calidioris q^ dion fit,&rficdoris tcmpera:^ 

menti proponcntibus,ut ad illum humidum , fri^ 

gidumcp dfonedicere,pam'm aliud quoduis ani^ 

mans ftirpemue,uerbf gratia Ieonem,aut canem, 

at(j his humidiorem,ac frigidiorem aflerere dio;* 


f1ciii,Qui/quis !git ncc ipfe ftfe fallere,ncc dh alio 
faili uolet , huic opus e ft ab his fubflaj[irr|s , ^usc 
(impliciter calidae/rigida:, humidse , ilcca: dicunt 
incipere,atq? ita trannre ad reliquas . Ac primunn 
quidem illud ipfiim in r)s exploratu habere , ne has 
quidem tametfi maxime uidentur abloluco fermo^ 
nedici, quo minus ad mediocrc eiufdem generis 
compai-entur eftugere,ueluti enim canemmedio 
tempcramento efle omnium canum dicimus, cum 
pari ipatio diftat ab extremis, ita fubftantiam me;* 
dioelle temperamento dicemus ,cumparimodo 
abextremis abeft,quae{cilicet &prima omniuni 
fiint &eIementa.Porro aberit pari modo ab extrc;^ 
mis,cum ea continet arqualiter inter fe mixta. Ergo 
quac iupra dtra ue hanc,temperies erit, eam calida» 
rrigtdam,humidam,uel fJccam dicemus , fimiilei , 
qux mcdia efl,conferentes Jimul cotrarionjm ele^ 
mentoriuTi examen in ca faeientes . Qua nimiru ra>^ 
tfone fimplidter eam calidam, frigidam , humida^ 
ficcamue pronundabimustubiuaocum medio 
tcmperamento conferimus^no limpliciter, fed qd* 
ad mcdiocre eiufdem gcneris fic fe habet. Porro ge 
nus earum (ubftantia cft , omnia cnim fuh jiac , ut 
(uperiori funt gcnere, tum animata , tum inanima • 
Eftq? haec horainis,canis,platani,ficus,jeris, ferri, 
aliorum denicp ommum,communegenus.Sub ea 
uero (iint alia genera pcrmulta » Anfmal quidem, 

D u) zuiSf 

auiS5pifos:tops arboris &rheibae:auis,aquilae & 
corui:pi(ci's,lupi BC rombL Similimodo oleaE Bc fi 
cusjgcnus eft arbor:anagaJlidos,8^peoniaf,bei:ba* 
lam haec ulcima funt gcnera,eocp fpecies appeJlan* 
tur,coruus ,rombus , ficus,anagaIliSjfimiJiter ho;^ 
mo &! hos* Ac iupemae quidem dcfccndentibus, 
hsec ukima funt genera,^inde (pedcs di&x, Infcr 
neuero alc€nder3:)us,ab indiuiduis (cilicet (iibftan 
ci}s,prja iiintlndicatuq^ aho operecft ^ merito oia 
qux media funt iter pria & idiuiduagencra^fimul 
genera & ipesa uetcribus nominan. brgo cii defi^ 
Hita fignificata ia finc, acdare indicatu ^ qucadmo:? 
du cum abfe]uto,tu no abibluto (ermone calidu/ri 
g(du,humidu ,(iccuuecorpus aliquod pronudati 
du fic , qudorendd!: nobis deinceps eorS (unc nota?* 
Qua^hic quocp dccemere pnus de nominibus 
oporcet qua:!in habedo nobts (ermone, neccflario 
incideijfimul cxphcare re quanda,quac poteftate ia 
moftrata prius eft,no tn »4) oibus^quihos comen 
tarios euoluetjfadle (altem intdligi poteft Jtacp de 
noibus prius locutus , mox ad re reuercar ♦ Quod 

prius eftindicatu • Quodaut^(bla:ip(seincor* 
poribus qualitates,citra corpora, qua? eas (u(cipi=« 
aist,fic iterim nominettt, id quide ^ ut no dii eft di* 
iSu^icanuc dideft tepeftiuu . Q^ieadmodunome 


albi UJ de cofore etmciat, cu ila loquiit , cotrarius e 
albus color nigrOjtii decorporc , qcF colore {hfe 
pir,cfl icilfcet oloris corpusalbii dicut ♦ Ira & calidi 
nome^tCx de qiialitate aifimiat ipfe^ta^ ii csliditate 
appeilaret, tuuerodecorporeqd' caliditate fufbV 
net* Quippe caliditate a corpore qd' ca fiifcipit di* 
iieriam haberenatura, & propria ex/llimare opor 
tct,ueIutiinoperedeeIemetis eft idicatu*Etc^di 
tas quide qualitas eft , eade uero & calidu didtur, 
Uf luti &albedo albiLIpfi ucro corpus calidu^unu 
hocnome tantuiuodo optinet^calidu^ficutialbu» 
Nii^ in caliditas, uel albedo, corpus ipfiim dicic» 
Ad mdi modii ficcU) frigidu , & humidu , noian^ 
tu fplu corpusjtii quaIitas*Non tii corpus fr^idi=» 
taSjhumiditas, uel ficdtas appeHat , cjueadmcdum 
quaeieo equalitas,hasc cu fic iehab^t, no alienii e» 
cirudcaliditate,uel fr^iditate diiputas quis^fert, 
nullaexoriri captione^Quod fblse qualitates his ms 
dicent noibus ♦ At caUdii , frigidum ue di didtur , 
cjuando SC cjualitas ip,& quod eam iuidpit , cor;* 
pus nominatur^fecilefit d ,quiredarguereftudet, 
ut quod a loquentenon fignific atur,id quo poffit 
reprehenclere,accipiat.EiuImodi enim remfiiam, 
qui fententiam iflam,quadicit Hyppocrates au* 
gefcentia corpora plurimum habere innatum call^ 
dum , oppugnant . Neque enim efle coq^us ali ^ 
quod ciidum,ip(um innatum aiali calidum intd* 


ligf fites j nccp td quid Ct ufqua quacrcnecs ,6d dc 
Iblaquaiitatcquam feilimc^iciuatcm appcllamus 
nommicl dici praefiimcntcSjficdiciumdusrefelk 
rt p^iraacftiamapparcrjquod de homonymia di 
ftiogoere^tametfi fit res parua, vamm in r&mm ulu 
jionksiss expcritur momcnog ucrum di hoc quosi 
c^ abunde ik definkiim, mrium idquod fiip ercjfl, 
iqsaamus» Ci5 huiBidirasj&fkcicas, & QJsditas, 
& frsgidkas , {yncera? quardam , & impermixtse 
qualirates fmt^qussamxp has iulcipcre corporaca 
alida,& fr^idajficca, 8^ humida^prorfus exa(fbe 
q? fuiie , Accp ba?c mihi genitorum » & percmitiu 
clemcnta itudlige . Reliqua corpoia uel animaliii^ 
uei fhipium^uel inanimorum omntu » uduti acris, 
fcrri Japidumjignorum^medio primorum illo^ 
m colbcata efie» Nulbm enim iSorum ud adiuin 
mmu ciHdum»ue!adfummum &igidum,uel ad 
£!mmum huniidum , uel ad fiimmum ficcum di^ 
Scd uei mcdmm prorfiis contrariorum ^ta ur mti^ 
lo magf s fic calidum$^ (r^idimi^aut humidum ^ 
ficoimiUdadaltcrum contrariorumen: propen^ 
£im,ita ut m^is lit calidum, ^ fr^idum , ud ma^ 
gis fit humidum ^ (iccS , ac liquidem medium pla 
ne Ct in mtocp contrariorumgcncre^ita ut non ma<s 
gis fit calidum q? frigidum, auf humidum ^ (iccii» 
cucraton id fiue temperatum omtiitK) dicetiH* ♦ Sin 
akrsum contrarionim iiipcret, fiue inaltcra oppo* 


fitione,(iu€ iti utra^ id (ic,non etiam dicetur eucra^ 
ton* Ac ii caitdum magis (it ^ fjrigiduni, quod ma 

fis e&yid appdlabitur.Idem ftamendum de ficco, 
C humido ♦ Ad eundem modum fi frigidum mas* 
gis fitjnorainabimrfrigidum^At fi in utracp oppo 
iitionealcerumiuperet^fiue calidum unacum humi 
do^fiue calidum fimul cum ficco , fiue fr^idum (Lf 
mul cum hurmdo,fiue fr^idum una cum ficco^uci^ 

gpro uinced ibrtieturid corpusappellationem* 
has quidem quatuor intemperies^utfupra dixi^ 
mus,plunmi norunt,tum medici, tum philo(bphi« 
Rdiquas quatuor, qua: cx dimidio harum coAicu 
tx (unt,nefao quomodo derdinquunt, ficut ctiam 
eam,quae prima omnium^oprima^ eft.Ca2terum 
quodfiiperante calidoliceacnihilo magishumida 
c(ie,^ ficcam temperiemiquod ua<^ ad hanc fiD€:f 
<ffec coiuganbnem^idud ex i]s,quae iam di^ nmt^ 
m3nifeftumarbirror,6ciIeqp efteaam finihil eflec 
pra?di<5:um ^ id cofl^ere ♦ Concedennbus Qmd il^s 
lud &ltem , alteram cne temperiem humidam & ca 
lidam,al£eram ficcam & calidam* Si nan^ necefla^ 
riii omnino no eft &cam efie,quaj calida fit, fed li* 
ceteam &humidam efle,Iicebicuric]p& mediam 
e(le: propiornancgficcac temperacuraemedia efl:; 
^ humida* Ad eundem modu eft & fr^ida quae* 
dam temperies altera^n qua mmimm frigidu poU 
ki:hanccamennechumidamefle,necfi'ccam,eft ne 

E ceflc^ 

cefle. Scd pofeilinter fiss & mediaefle»Rur&s 

cnuii hicquo^eandem aftercs ifationeni,Ncmpe 

fiaeceflenon eHfr^idam cemperie eflchumidS; 

fcd licet SC iiccam eam fier! mmikAtim d t> raedia 

quocpeflcpofle* Quippequae mcioior humidas 

eft^ (icca.JBgouelud duaer intemperiesinaltcra 

oppofitionefiinimonftratapjalteraadida tantumj, 

akera frigida.Sicin alteraoppoficionc dua:;alia? fta 

niantur,akera ficca tancum^aftera humida ^ medio^ 

criter fciltcet feie habentibus calido & fr^ido, Ice. 

rum mcp dicemus hic quoc^^ficutineceue no eft^ 

fiqaa temperies ficca cft^nc protinus cahda quoa< 

^efl£»Sed fien poiIe,utetia fr^ida fic, itafienpo^^ 

teil:,utqua?pianecca!ida fitnecfr^ida » Sedinhac 

quidem oppofitione eucrato$,fiue temperata,in al 

Ccra,ficca*SimiIimodo nechumidam remperiem 

necefle eft calidam^gidam ue efle. Sed eam me« 

diam efle ihterhuius oppofitionis cKtrema licec» 

Si igitar ncceflc non eit, ut ud intcmpcricm , quas 

in calido eft & fi^do , (equatur ea quae eft: in alte 

ra oppofitione inteperies,ue! hanCjqua? inilla, lice 

bit aiiquando Sc naiuram, quaj in caliditate 8^ fri^ 


Inuicecp quar in his teperata fit, ud calidji eile , uel 

fr^*da»quare fiic & hsEab ijs,quas prioirs tujTJcdi 

ci^tirphiiofbphinpbis tradiderut qiiatuor diucrfc 

Kitq>crics.McdiO(y loco pofitse intcr tcmpcratos 


habttus ySCcos qui lutrac^oppofitioc funt itepc^ 

rad.Qui nacpi fummo c t€peratus,is «cuna oppo 

fiuonehabec fupaante . Qui uero aduerfus huic e 

iceperatus,utra<^ habet uitiofam* Mediu ibrtic los; 

cu,quii akeraquidce teperatusjialtcraitepcratus, 

qui ua<^ &C exdimidio eucratos^cx dimidio itcpe 

ratus cii Qt^ meritomedius did pot inter eu,quiex 

toto eft ceperatus,& eu qui ex toto eft itcperatus* 

Ec fi quide fasec Cc le habet , ficut ccrte fe habet , cur 

t3ouedicereuniuer(as tepcrametoru diilercQas du 

bitemus.Teperataquidc una,notepcratas odo, 

quaru quatuor fimpliccs fint,huida,ficca,calida, SC 

frigida,quatuor copofit^ huida fimul & ca!ida,fic 

ca pariter SC calida/rigida fimul 8c huida, frigida fi 

mul & ficca Jn quolihct ucro iadi<floru tepcramen 

toru pcrmagnus e exccflus ,defediifc]^ modus no 

in ijs modo qux fimpltda fiint«Sed etia i copofius* 

Idq? tu i tota fiibftatia^Tu uero i unoquocjp gene*: 

re Si cui igit agnofcedoru teperametoru cura e,in:f 

cipiac exerdtatione oportct shtpi quolibetgcne * 

te naturis^ quns teperatsc, media^cp fiint . Quippe 

cu fi his alias coparet facile qd^in quauss fiiperet dc 

fidac ue inuencrit.Ergo primu de ijs,qtKE &nplici 

ter Ioquetibus,tepaata,ite perara<^' dicun t,agedir; 

qua? fcHicet in oi gcnerata fubftatia,no in fblis aiali 

bus & ftirpibu« «itcjuirenda diximus . Porro hic 

quocp^c^iiialtc djftigim denoibuscoueiet^qd^ 

E i) calida 

calida temperics,aliaiamenergfa,(Iue, utloquutur 
adu fe,aJiapotcftatc,tuniquodpoteftateea eflc 
dicamus^quac quod dicuntur,id notidum (inc : icd 
fadle id fieri pdCnc^Quoniam naturaiem,ut id fi# 
ant facultatem fint adepta Jgitur primu de i)s, qua^ 
adtu cahda, frigida, humida, &C ficca iunc , diflera^ 
mus,aufJ3icati ab uniueria fubftantia,Moxad ani^ 
malia & ilirpes difcen(uri.Ita enim comiumn* aa® 
nem habebit, quod ihftitutum nobis eft ♦ Quonia 
igitur quod in omnium genere, maximecp in uni^ 
ucria (ubftantia medium eft,idex mixrioncextrctf 
morum conflatur,uticpconueniet,utt5 notio eius 
cumagnitio exillis (umatur* Acnotio quidem fa* 
cillima eft^Quippc a calidiflJmo omniii , quaefub 
fenfum ueniut, uelutiigni,aut quapiam aqua, quae 
ad (iimmum fit fcruens ad id,quod omuium,qua: 
nobis apparent,eft (rigidiflimum, uclutiglacicm, 
bC niuem ucnicntes,d[rftimato interea interuallo, in 
medio ad unguem id diducimus«Sic enim (ymme 
tron, quod (alicet ab utxocj^ extrcmoru pari abeft 
(pacio,iHtelIc(flu comprehcndemus « Quineciaic) 
nobis prsepararc licct«Mi(centibus aqua? feruen^ 
d parcm modum gladei. Quod enim ex ambobus 
e(l mixtum pari intcruallo ab utroc^ extremorum 
abcrit, 8C eo quod urit, & eo quod fr^ore ftupefa 
cit.Non eft ^itur difFiciIe ei, qui ita mixtum tetigc 
rit,medium uniuerfe (ubftantiae in calidi frigidiq^ 


oppofitfone habcre^eiuft^memfniflc, ztcp afia cm 
niailli uelutinorme aciaptataiudfcare*Qui'netia 
(i terram,qu2e Ccca {it,uel cinerem, uel tale aliquid 
quod plane fit aridum^pari aqua? modo imbueris, 
medium inficci humidic]^ oppofitione ejffeceris . 
Ergo ne liic quidem difFicile eft ubi uifu pariter^ta^ 
(^uq^ eiufmodi corpus noueris memoriaeid infigc 
re,eoc]p ad humorum, ac Cccorum, quse defidant, 
fuperentue agnitionem pro norma , exemplariqp 
utiPorro corpus de quo iudicandum eft, medio^ 
criter calens eft . Namhoc ipfijm humidi »Ccciq^ 
medium corpusfiad fiimmumidcalorem frigus 
ue St perdu<5liim,falfam interim imagfnationem ex 
citabit,uidebiturcp cp fitmedioae,aIicjuandohu* 
midius,aliquando ficcius.Quippe Cliberalius cas 
lefiatjiquattim iam,ac fluxile Jhumidioris finbftan* 
tiasphantafiamde fepra?bebit contra refrjgeratii 
ttir,& durumtagenti apparet. Vnde etiam falfam 
duridciimagfnationeexhibet* Quodfiueluti hu* 
midi ficcic^ pa^ modum habet,fic caIoris,ac fn 
goris fit in medio ^nec durum ^ nec molle tangenti 
apparebitidcorpus* Atcptotaqufdem efufinodi 
gidum,ficcum»& humidum, homini facultas non 
eft,Tcrraenimaquaeconfula,mifcetur quidem 
(quatenusfcilicet uideri cuipiampoffit ) at^ m 

B iii tota 

f ota toti conteniperattir . C^si&Um appofitio cxi^ 

guarum pjirtiuni caeft , nequaquam totorum per 

£Ota mixtiOtScd ambo ea per tota mifceie , dei , uel 

Hacuraccft opus,magi(q^ etia(icalidu,acfrigiduni 

iter (e tota per tota mifccda (int ♦ Attame appofitio 

neeiufjiiodiefFedre, ut fenfumefFugiat finguJafim 

pliciu eorporu , no fblu natura? opus dei ue e ♦ Sed 

etia noflru. Neq^ eni diRicile e tali mixrioe, lutum, 

qd^incdiu ficci,huidic^ fit,mol;n.Simili mo Sc qd' 

caltdi ac frjgidi fic medm, uidebit q^ tibi eiufiiiodi 

corpus i caiore &rfrigore teperatu: imo ctia in du^ 

ricie,moHiciec]pmediO itatu cfle . Id aurgenus eft 

kominis cutis,utpote omi=iiu extremoru c^di/ri> 

gidi,huidi,{icci iierc media,Maximec]^ ea,qu*e cft 

in manu,h.TC enim omniu fefibiliij uelud norma fu 

tiif a erat prudetifIimo,nimirij animatiii tadus in^ 

itrumcctr ah ipfa natura pra^rparata. Quo magis e^ 

ab omnibus extremis calido in^,frjgido,ficco, 8C 

huido pari abeflc intcruallo oportuit Ja utic^ d<. co 

ftat ex horii omniS equis pordoibus,no copoCtis 

mo,(ed eria per totas fe mixtis,qd*noftrij plane ne 

mo efficere p6t:Sed e naturar opus* Quxcu<p igi 

ciir partes cutc fimt duriores , uelutiofla carrilagi* 

moKiores funt,(icuti fanouis,pituira,fcuum,adeps, 
ccrebrrT,rncduIIa tii fpiiialis ^tu altera^ in his humidi 


plus c,(5 ftcci.Quin etia quato Ccciflima omuium 
quae (unt in hoie pafs cute ficcitate fuperat^tato rur 
fus acute iuperat, qcF efl hindiflimii , porro uidet 
nijc diiceptatio noli:ra,ea qu<e utihdima funt attin* 
^cre,ac doccre (imul qd' tij animaliu , tu uero cmni 
um corporu teperatiilimus fit ho.Simul qd* omnt 
um,qu^ in eo Ciint particularu cutis,qiiaj intra ma:» 
nu habet omnis exceflus plane fit expers» Infiftetes 
igit hoc loco, el-bmemus quifiia fit optime leperas: 
tus ho,que (cilicet totius (ubltatia^uel potius tum 
hoim,tu reliquoru anim^ii medii]i,ueluti regula SC 
norma ftatuetes,reliquos oes huic coUatos calidos 
frigidos,hiiidos,ficcos uediccrc oportet» Cocuri* 
rat aut oportet in hoc hoie multx notsc» quippe & 
cij uniueria (ubftatia coflatus , medius apparere in 
ea debet,6<^ maois etia cii hoibus & beilrjs* Ac mc 
dijquide in uniuer(a (iibftatia , comunes nota? di^s 
Aae ia fut. Qux uero in animaliij, (peciebus notat, 
a<fliois pcrfedioe quae cuicp fit coiienies iudicanc* 
Conuenit aucem homini, ut fit (apieriiHmus, cam*, 
ut mitiilimus pariter Cit 8>C (brtifIimusJeoni,ut tas» 
tum (it fortiflimus, Sicuti oiii^ut (it tantum mitifli 
maJam uero quod corporis adiones con(entien« 
tcs efle animi moribus oporteat , tum Ariftoteli iri 
his,quapdepartibusanima]ium fcripfit^tum ue* 
ronobis alibinihilominusemSftratir. Acmciho* 
dus quidemh^c eft,E.^;ercitari uero,ut non in fin«» 


guiis modo generibus^ fed etiani in uniuerCs me^ 
dkim in promptu qiiis nofcar^id ctiiuiiibet homi* 
nis noo eR:(ed diligentis mipnmis>8^ qui per lon^ 
gamacxpericnnam, S^muftam omnium particulaj* 
eundem niodam plsftae^pidoreSjftaaBiijjalij dtt^ 
nicp fi^flores, qu;^ puldienima in omoium fpede 
iunt^tum pinguni:^ trnn fingunr ^ uelud homioem ^ 
cquumjx^uem^koneformofiffimum, adid quod 
inedium eft in illa Ipecie collimantes , hudantcp ho 
ininesquaiidam Polycled flamam canonem ap^s 
peMararsiiode adeo id nomeo Ibracum, quod par 
dumHii^ieoraoiiim compercnciam ad unguem 
liabeac^habct aaccm quem nunc quscrimus , plos 
allquid,^ Caoon ille^Qgum nonfblum humoris 
ac iicdtms in 'fmdio conllftat^is qm eu&cos, fiae 
qua^aais cjQ: homo:fed edam oprimam formado 
mcmorum t€mpmmi eit comitata, fortalE diuiss 
nioremaliquanifiiperne Qr^inem liabee*C^te^ 
rum prorius eufarcon fdwrn. efle eiuloiodi homi.^ 
nemjiduerocfljicceflarium* Qoippe medioaf^ 
cas incarnc5€xmediocritate temperamenti proue 
nictprodnixs aucem adfeqmtur tale corpus, m opti 
me ad adaones fit comparatum* Tum in moHide, 
^durida prseterea calorcac frigore mcdiocrirer 


ttic iili pmi^qux cft intra manumJSdlicet quac cal 
kim eiufniodi non coatrajdc , qualis iii rcuiigibus 
& foilbnbus ccmicur « Cucnimganiniuius caudf 
fa manus iunt hn^^&n di&emedi^&rcmquap] 
am comprchendendi udc^ c|U£e molles &intadcx 
quifitius tangendum, durc ad aKquid maiore nica 
piendum magis fimt idone^, Quin cm aids, quse 
sion fbluin oninium homims paxdum/ed cda unU 
uerise,qua2 gencrationi, corruptioni^ fubijdtitf 
fiibllanda: media eft^ea nec calloia , nec dura lapi* 
dea ue eft , fed (ecundumnatiiram (e habcns , quo 
fcilicetcmis generc maxinie.perfecf^um cfletadij 
cen&mus ♦ Ac quod in durida Sdmollide medium 
omnium particularum Iocumiitibrtita,abunde li^ 
quet.Quod autem &C in calore , ac frigore fifmliter 
fe habeat^ex eius lubftantk rnaximc intelligas licet, 
Eft enim ueluti ianguine p^ditusneruus > qui fit 
inter neraurn, & caraem qaiddam plane mcdium, 
Ac fi ex mixds utrifc^ cordlitueretur ♦ Csetcr u ner#f 
uu3,omn/s cjaguis eft &frigidus,Caromultiiarj 
nguinis Sc aHdsL , Media inter utrunque eft curis ♦ 
Nec plane exanguis ut ueruus,nec fanguine abun 
danSjUt caro* fi igimt hanc omnium animalis par^ 
tium,ueluti nomiam* ludicemq? proponcns , reli^ 
qua illiconferaSjatq^ad eam examines, odo diuer 
lasintemperies incis inueniesjamq? membratim 
tibi de oranibus deinceps diOeram ^humidiffimij, 
* F fr^ididli' 

uigidiffixmmc^ in cof pof e p«uHa efl e Calidiffi^ 
my m ianguis jHon tanie rfl is pennde htmiid«s,iit 
pitukaLSiccilliiTiU ac fngidiffimumefl- pilus . Mi^ 
iius eo 5£ frigidum Sc (iccum cft os, hoc uero m^' 
nuis (iccijmeil cartilago.Pr osirne hauic lequit,c]uc 
Graxicxcarcilaoine&ligamctito compoliro no«* 
fi/3ine,cliondro(yiide|nion uocans: , poft hunc terN 
do.deiiiceps niefnb:rafiaj& arteria A' nen?,, ipfa (ci 
licet corpora uafonjiis.Succedunr defndc oerul cki 
riaiiolies autcm nerui m humidiratc & iiccirate, iVi^ . 
diam nasiiram-,ficiiti coris optioenr * Naf n m altera 
eppofebfic^qy cC elt caJidi ^ frigidi «m!iis mok 
lis m nicdio non efl: . Sed tantum ei defit de calore. 
quantum dc fenguiiie Jta uero & reliqua omnia prii 
us di(fia,tato (unt ciite fngsdiora^ quanto minus ha 
benr fangu /nis^Etiam tunicse ipfe^maxime &rjgu# 
neonim uaibmm.artcdamsn,dico 8£ uenar?im,«i5 
fofum exangues lumsfed a:k^m frigidjgnatuia co*» 
caflu tum languims calefiunt,a£<^ admedium tem 
peramcnd f^acum neniuot^Sanguis uero ipfe^acor 
de fuum accipit calorem » Quipp^ scl uilcus natm 
&jmoitimum animalis par dculanim maKimeiaii^jj 
gusi^-om p3m uero caiidiffimum eft:proximyni § 
U iecur cfttUemm cor paulo ^ cuds minus eft du^ 
rumijieeur multo Jtacp ctiam humdim ^custls cof 
eft,q5.?:3nto fciliceteft mollius Jam u€ro caro hmi 
diof cateeft,€adeai£am€itca!idior»Sp^s1is aisrewi 

mjeduHa cute eft himudim^ic^ etiam frigjdioi, Si 

€uti I vjc rurfus humidius cfl ccrebnim: cerebro au 

temspfoadepsmi concredo contigitspropterea 

e|iiod fncnbrani^* adiacet^Craflb nancp oJco eft fi* 

mikSo^ congelaoir ^ wbi cmn frigidis , & oim^ 

gutbus par daib'scomiif^'tiir. At necff circa iecisr 

coire adeps potd^ ^ neque circa atterias^uenas m^ 

auc coi%Scd mc circa aliam iiHani pr^calidam par# 

nciilamu Quoniam autcm cogitu? per id^qiiod ual 

dc e|1:fr^!dum,iddrco calefada lsqiiatur,ca:teras 

riim cosigelacorum ritu^ Atcerebnmi caiefadiim 

mirumeliquatur^eofpadipe minus efthumidu» 

Porro minus humidaqiiaadcps,eft5sC pulmo^s: 

nism caro. Vt quae nec ipfa calerada liqueicat» hm 

longe edam ^ ha^cadipe minus huinida eft , t» 

U^nis , fum r enum caro» Omnia tamc cutc fiuit h« 

raidiora* hsrum rcrum dcmcmflTaaones 

proximo iihro iradam , ficudomnia 

qu5e ad uniuerfira de tempcis 

mencis dilputauonem 

pertinet, duobus 


tari)s expo 


Gaicnidc temperametis,ThomaLinaao 

AngioinC€rpretc,libri primi^ finis» 

» - ...» r* " 


incntis, libcrlecmidus, Thoma 

Linacro /ntcrprctee 

gidum corpm uVptoKimoddim^ 
ttm eft IfbrOjdcmonftratum prxts 
reaeit,noueme(!c temperamcntom difiwntias, 
unamquidemquse mediocris ilt 8C€ua^tos ,qua 
eciamtemperatamtiocamus^Rcliquasofnnes in^ 
teperatas quatuor fimplices ^ urnca ic ilket in quac|i 
dita^;quatuor abhis diuerlas , inquibus uiriulc^ 
oppofitionis altera qualitas cxuperat , dico aurem 
duas oppofitiones,altera quse cil calidi & frigidi, 
altera quae eft fi-igidi & iiccr. Ab his ad notas earu 
d^eiu^de temperata natura difceptauimus, quoi^ 
niam hax omniumprima ulrtute, potentia cogni^s 
tionift^p ordinefit At cum tcmpezatum aliud ab(b 
lutedid^um inueniatur inuniuerfii rerum natura* 
Aliud in fingulis generibus , pnncipio uilum eft 
de eo confyderamdum efie , qucd communiter ia 
uniueria natura eftimatur,huius norma , iudicuc^ 
€rat,ekmentorum pombnis a^qualitas , Cuius rei 
gratiaextremorumomniuni mediumadunguem 
tedditum,eucratoii Bc iymmetron^ fiue temperatu 

& medio^ 

& mectiocreniauis^didtur^RcKqua cjuse in fogu^ 
Itsgcneribus tcmperaiadicunturpropriis corposs 
fu fiindsonibus ufibu% iudicant, Eocp tit ^ut idi 
animalis cu iufpiam ilirpis ue corpus^omniu quas 
ifi eo £rat genere^medium efle pofBr, id eft^ in ilio 
genereeucraton & medioac. AlKri cuipiam com 
paratum^uel ftirpium^uel animaliiim^uel aoimorS 
generi,diicratQn^ueintemperaaim ♦ Quippeui^ 
uams corpus cum domortui collaium, humidius 
«uo,mm ipie (dpk^^xim alcer altero calidtor., humi 
diorcpeil.At<pinde adeo didum ueteribuseftg 
antmalcalidumS^humidum efle^Non abfolut© 
femoncjquod humiditas m eo , calor iicexuperct 
f Sic enim inuenire ell aoimaiia ficca/rigidacp co*» 
plura^ueiuti culices,mufcas,apes , formicas )kd ut 
ad mortuacoIiatu:uiuaeiiI apes calidior huidtorc^ 
^ mortuaeft,& formica uiua,^ mortua.Cii hoie 
lameQ,ec]uo,boue ue co]lata,tii ali)s ianguioe pra^^ 
^tis animalibuSjOmnia id genus frigida, ficcaqu€ 
temperieiunt, Quin 6 ad imiuerfam naturam {pe^ 
ftans ea eKpendas^ne fic quidem quo minus fngi«s 
da,{Iceacp feit,elabantur.Tan^ enim in unoquoi* 
quegenere,ubiquid a medioCTitate receflSt:» ab eo 
quod uinaf,nomenaccfpitJtidem in uniuerfa (ub 
fbmdajCum aliquid medium tranficrit jHO amplius 
cucraron^d uelcalidum,uel frigidu, uel humidu, 

F iij uelGccu 

ud ficcum iionninabitiir.MonfiTan:m enm fiipra 

cfthoniincm nonfolumanimaljunijftitpium ue: 

tedcdamreliquorum omnium maximeclle t€m«; 

p€ratimi.Quoniam autem exmuliis dC dillidena 

bus i$conciimsellpa!tibus,manife{himeftquae 

parsm^dio omoiiimfic tempcifamemo^eamefle 

maximeeuaaron, fiuc tcmpcrafam , Quasnanque 

animalfS eius quod mcdf| fk £empcramenti,media 

pardcula cft,ha!C omniym fimplidter cft cmipcra 

tifl[imum.Mor2ftraaimueroeftidefle m hominc 

cutem^ Atcp huius eam maximeparce, qua: in ma? 


lita^s pcrftiterit . lam ucro quod nec cmuiuCcjf 

liominis ams mcdiii abfoluteioqucndofitumuer 

fefiibft5da?*Scdeiusquimaxime eft tepcratus, 

diifKprius eft. Plurimaenim eOeipfis quocp ho* 

minibiis inter ie dii&reda, ueru maxie teperatus is 

eft,qui corporis habitu , medius horu extremoru 


irecpcaIoris5& frigoris Jnuenias eni cuiuflibcthorf 

minfs tar^edo corpus , uel mite & hahaiofum C3bs 

fore^uei igneu,3^ acre,uel horu neutiu Jmmo frigi 

dicate quada pollct€,fiigiditatc aut pollere ut i hcas 

corpore itell^ere oportet . Eoc^ tii (anguineo, tu 

haido. Ac corporequide talis c teperatiflimus ho» 

Ide aio quoc^ medius omnino e, audacta? &C timo 

fis.Cuciatiois &pra:apiiatiois^i{cncordia!, 8C 


muidte:fiicrit ucf o talis afacer amicom amasjhua 
n\3SiSC prudens. Et teperatiflimus quide ho cx his 
pnmUjpoaflimuc^ agnolcic . Acccdui non pauca 
commjquae exneceifitatehax fequunf* Q^ipP^ 
edit^bibitcp in niodo»& nutnmeta no folu i ucire, 
iedetia in uenis,& tota corporis inole^ ;pbt coco^ 
tutes inculpatas hafaet . Cu& fenfiiu facuitaobus^ 
& membrom moribus opti mis fit pra?ditus5& m 
uiukiocolofefemper ficj tii ad peripiratu excreme 
toru bene coparatus Jde medius inier fbmnolentu 
& peruigileyinter glabru & hirtu ^ sotcr nigru colo 
rem & aibum , pilofcp habeat cum puer ell magis 
rufos ^ nigros,in fiorc eft contra» At quonia dif^s 
fcrcntiarj,quaj cx a:iatc eius (pedant ^metione fe** 
dj no alienu (it , aliquid ia de i)s quoc^ apponCTc» 
Porrouoleba unius cufuiq^prsrdiiflamnotarum 
caii(as perlequijUeru <xl ad ea,quae nuc iSt^ofita 
magts^urgeat2Btatuco(ydcratio^a?etia maxima 
nucinCftamus.Intefl^amus igjtur recens formatu 
animal in utero matns^quo lciamus qua ratione his 
midifllmUjCalidiflimucp fit^pnma enl cius coftitu 
tio cx /eminc & {anguine eft , quae humsdae & ca<» 
fida^fcsfiint,hk autem magis fcmper ficcefcenti* 
bias , primum qoidmi formantur mcmbranar,tuni 
3c, ite uifccxa & fangius ua6 , dtia ucro perftqSt 

ofia & 

oik^Bi ungaes^Sc cairtilagjnes,conacta tilicct cor 
rum lubftand^u Amc cnim ^ uel tendi poilit lub^ 
ledfe fobftantia^ucl concrcfcefevnihilficri niemora 
tommpotAEt tumcag c^uidem,aciiiembrana:, 
arcefise<^,& ncruj5& uensejtcnfe ea^offat^^ilagiV 
riee^ungiieSjUngutes& uifccra, coagulataea perfl 
dun£ur<Hls uer o in utero perfcdis ita dcffidepan 
terinfsns»Eil uero adhuc '«n fianmo humidus^ucss 
luti maris a^a. Idcp noin ianguinis uaCs modo Sc 
ujfceribus, ac cama? ^ icd etiam ipfis ofllbus , cjuae 
fcilicet ficcidima iiint omnium qux in nobis iunt, 
pardum, Verum tum haec, tum rcliqua toca una cu 
his membra quaii cerca fintjinfantium nutrices fin 
gunt/ormant<^* Tanta eft in toto puellorum coris 
pore humiditas. C^jin fi recens cditum porcellum, 
utl €& , ud diileduminipicere uelis:carnem qui«t 
dem dus mucco(am,pradbumidacp inuenies^Oile 
«m uerogenus iiniuarium^caleo quimodo (it coai 
gujatus ad fimile* Adco,ut nuper nati animalis cor 
pus propter redundantem in eo humorem libeits 
Kon comedas. Quod maxime tum fuilH^tum ouil^ 
U foeais corpori acddif ^ propterea quod ea maxi* 
mc fiint humida.Caprinu^quod ficdus fit» SCnis^ 
lius cfin eft &C iucundius ♦ Contra uero qp m nouel 
lis proceIlis,quaecun<^ iam (enuerm^hsec oflaqui* 
dem omnia 8C ligameta uniuerfajpracficca^fine flic 
co>& infipida poffldent • Carnem uero neruolaai 


& duram» Artcrias qiiocp &iicnas3& ncruos,arta 
ds ailpa Jori ui€ejinfuaues,8^ Cne fucco^Qucc me 
dio llatu horum,ac nuper natorum {unt,qiia2 uticg 
iam aecaie procefierunc qiiantii a fenio abfunt^tan;? 
zum & ab extrema ficcicate funt remota ♦ Quae mi^ 
nora fiintjatc^ adhuc augeicunt , tantum ea quoqi 
ab geflati etiamnum fcjec us humore £±>funt>qiian^ 
tumprocefleruntastate, Florefcensueroajtas onuf 
mum animalium maxime in medio extrcmoru eit, 
ntcp ficutienium adfummam perducSa ficcitatea 
mc^ uelmi infantium a?tas in hiimore SC miAto uui 
do merla . C ur igicur aliqui celebrium medicorum 
humidum efle fcnium,prodidemnt ♦ An uiddicet 
quod excrementorum abundanria funt decepu ♦ 
Quippe nim oculi his lacrimis fufFunduntur tum 
nares defUlatione manant» Tum in ore eoruin f ali 
ua? copia exuberat. Ad hax tum tufllunt , nimexs* 
creant pituitam.Sdlicet pulmone.-^ quocp hac efle 
refcrtos iudicantes , ucter quoc]^ illis pitiuta efl pie 
nus*Tii finguli artkuli quodamodo muccofi.Cae^ 
terum nrhil horum obflat, quo minus fenum cor# 
poraficcacenfeantur, Vtquorumncruos SC dit^ 
rias^&uenaSj&membranas , bLommum infhru* 
mentorum ninicas,mu]to ^5 prius erant, ficdores 
inuenias.Circumfundiautemillis extrinfecus , ins^ 
triniecus ue, auc pituitofum quendamhumorem, 
aut muccofiim. Verum tantumabeft , ut eiufmo:* 

G di figna 

di figm unfiier& feiiilem ajtatem humidam confii: 
mant,ut etiam ficcam eflfe propc ceftcntur^ Idcirco 
nanq^ particulaquaeuis (icdor,quaante uidetur, 
quod per caloris imbecillitatem jdmiliter non nutri 
tur^foris enim copia illi, humidi excrementi (uperss 
fllmcat. Corpus autem cuiuicp intrinfecus , iiccum 
eftjquod nec trahere intro nutrimentum ualeat , 
neceo £ifFicfenter fruLBftetgo humidus fenex, 
non proprfjs fuis particulis,fed excremends.Rur=^ 
ium ficcus , no excremenris, (cd pardculis ipfis Jta 
nimirum alio genere CccuSjalio humidus ♦ Verum 
non eft ad prifens decxcrementis eius,(ed de pro 
prfjs partibus difceptado,quamm propriae ad:io 
ncs uitam eius compIcnt:his igitur ficcus ieiiex 
cft 5 quibus feilicet puer cft humidus Jpfis nimi 
rum fblfdis corporis pardculis, offibus, mem^ 
branis, ligamends, arteri]s, uenis , neruis , tumcis, 
carnibufqac • Meritoque Ariftoteles {cniiim mar 
ccnd ftirpi adfimilat* Qyippc ftirpes noudlee 
dum fiint,moIIes ,humidacquc cemuntur ,fene;« 
fcmtes afiidue magis ficcefccreuidentur » Ad po^: 
ftremum ficcac prorfiis redduntur* Idque ipfis 
mors eft ♦ Ac quod ficciflSma aetatumfenilisfit, 
exiam dictis Iiquct* Quod auteiTi 8C frigidM^ 
ma fit , id uel magis eft euidens Jta ut de eo m^ 
mo dubitaucrit. Nam &: tangend fenes fiigidi ap^ 
parent, &:facilein frigidum ftanim rautatitur» 


Ec n^ , & liuidi fiunt , & fr^idis morbis f adle 
capiunmr^ Apoplexia ncruorum refolutionc Al 
pore , tremorc , comulfione , deftillatione , raucess 
dine ♦ Porro perrjteorum omiiis paulo minus fans? 
guis ♦ Eoque una peri]t &C coloris rubor ♦ lam ue;? 
ro concodio his,& digefi:io5& {ignificatio,& ap 
pofitio , SC nutritio , d>C appetcntia , Sc fenius , & 
motus 5 obIc(a omnia Cmt , uitiofeque adminiftra 
ta^Ec quid, quaefo,aiiud cft fenium,^ uia ad interf^ 
ritumC' Ita fi mors natiiralis calcwris eft extin<ftio, 
utique {enium ueluti tabes qusedam eius fuerit.Vc 
rum non perinde de puerorum , dC florenriu acta 
te intcr medicos conuenit ♦ Sed ncc dinmere ixu^ 
ler cos litem eft promptum,probabiles enim funt 
iitrorumque rationcs, tum eorum, qui pueros 
calidrores effe, quam florentes aetate cenfent* 
Tum eorum,quicontra,florentes calidiorespu 
eris efl^ contendunt» Alterinanqueex eo quod 
fanguinis Iiumor ornnium^quae in animalis haben 
lur corpore caKdiflSmum natura fe^tum quod 
foctus in utcro propcmodum fanguis tantum fit 
poft enim fingcndisutiqueianfi particulis,aliud 
os effidtur, aSudJartcria^ aliud uena,aliud dis» 
uerfiim ab his aliquid : omnia camen rubra, 
tum quod finguinem (ynceriiIimum,caIidiflG[* 
mucp optineat : colligut calidiflSimii efle geftatum 
in utm> fcxtu» Quod fi eftetia pucros quato gefta 

G il t^in 

dsin utcropropiorcs funt,tanto cfle florcntrbus 
accate calidiores» Altcri quod ctiampliirimus fit in 
florcdbus (anguts ,ac copioCor ^ in pucris . Ita ut 
eius occafioneacbrohis (anguisproflust»Quia 
cttani quod flauac bilis iuccus ,qui (ariguxnc multo 
dt calidior, pliuimus his Ct , proptercacalidiores 
efle florentcs^qj pueros,confirmanr.Rurfns illi ab 
ipfis fundionibus quod tum augeanair , tum plu^? 
ra, cp pro corporis (ui portione , alimenta tum ap^s 
petant,tum conficiant,uaIidum cfle in pueris calo^ 
rem ailerunt. hi contra humiditatis occafione , pOi# 
tiiiSy^ caloris ui, augeriillos contendunt.Atcon 
cod:ione noJi modo florentes non uinceregfed €ti^ 
longe ab i)s piicros uinci * Nain dC uomitioncs fjs 
€x concodis cibis accidere , & deiediones humii? 
das,aipcra{q5,ac a fiicco alienas . Quod fi appetut 
plura,nihilidfaccre adcaloris robur^Primuenim 
id no acddcre caloris copia, «t animal appctat plu 
raJmmocontra,refrigeratis fciliccthis partibus, 
qiiibus appctcncia debetur ♦ Deinde quoniam no 
tantumad nutriaoncm,(cdet{am incrcMcntum, 
aiimenaim moliuntur. Idcirco cdam pluribus nu^ 
trimentis iys cflcopus. lam ueroreliquis (iincfboni 
bus uniucrfisiCtiam no oblcure, infcriores eflcpu 
eros his,qui florenri fiint a?tate,ut qui nec ingredi, 
ncc currcre,no portare, necquic^ in (umma agen 
dorum opcrum fimiliter obcant.Cum floreribus, 


tum (cnfoniomnem, ttim mtelfedum ad fummam 
perfoftionem , bonitatcm<^ peruenidg* dicanc ♦ In 
lumma puerum adnuc imperfecftum efle fbreofe, 
animal perfccrtum.In perfedis rarionabile eile, ma 
xime acfliuum maximeqj prtficcps eJemaitum po! 
lcrc»Quin (omno quoqi plurimo deditos pueros 
uiderelicet ,contra minimo florentes efle contenr* 
tos. Quai>^ hunc quoqj,aliter accidere , ne infanu 
quidem hominem cenfere aiut,^ calido uicflo quo 
dammodograuatoqj humoris copia ,ueiuti£um 
ex temulentis intelligerelicetjtum fjs,qui balnco li^ 
bcraliusfintufijtauero 6d papauer fomnificmi^ 
cffe,& mandragoram^&! Iaducam^& omnia quas 
humidiore,frfgidiorcc|? tfperie funt^. Ac tales qui^ 
dcmde propofitarumajtatum tcmpcrie rariones 
utrincp afferuntur» Omncs enim reccnfere , fupcr:* 
uacuuin uidetur ♦ Cum formula ip(a cpichcrema** 
tu,ucl cx ijs^qusc rctulimus ^ (atis clarc per(pici pof 
fic.Bminusem*mutricp,fcrmec^a (ecundis priota 
coU^unc» Ac tan^iam(ciatauditor quemadmo«« 
dum au(ftio,quemadmodum concod:io, & qiscm 
admodumnutritio fiat,uerba faduaitiiimili modo 
de (en(u,de motu, de fundionibus » tum namralt^ 
busjtumquac agifiint idoneap,difputant.Dc fbm* 
ni quoqp generatione Sc ciborum naturajmcnrio:» 
nem,fadiuit,qnorum nuUum (Jmplcx promptucjj 
cognitu cft*Scd & multam difquifitioncm rcqui* 

G iij rit,ncc 

rit,nec poteil forcafle ulii compertum efllc^niii qui 

prius humidanijficcam, calidam, fiioidamqp tana 

periem lciat agnofcere» Quicquid emm eorum uc 

luti lcientes dicuntjid fi docereeos cogas , prorfus 

di^utatiooein de temperamentis^hancidlicetcui 

BuncinfiftimuSjdelyderabunt. Quarepermutua 

SC ex mutuis,fiunr f)s demonftrariones* Exfjs qui 

dan quse nunc quscrimuSjCcu iam fint cognitajCU 

de adiombus di(putant,& ciborum ac medicame 

torum facukates inueftigant, ac de (bmno , & alijs 

idgenus diilerunt, Ruriusautem quac nuncfiint 

propoCta per ilia, ueluti prius ia nota demonftiat» 

J^o uero eiufinodi demonftrationes non probo, 

€pm fi fated uerum oportet,nec demonimtiones 

cas cen&o,ueIud difFufius in alijs oftendi , (atiufi^ 

eile in omoi doceodigenere e%iftimo,ordinem c5 

ceptionum dffinire « Si^'tur prihcipium omnis 

qusede temperamentis fuiapitur ddputadonis , 

tra»fhtio dc elemltis eft ,fint ne ea mipatibiiia pror 

fufc^ mutationis expertia^alteran, mumicn poten 

m , ab illorum uero cognitione , lecunda deinceps 

eft»pix>pofita nunc difjjutatiosnon uticp fiimenda 

eft ipfomm fides ex f]s,quae no dum tiuntur/ed 

ficuti tum re<fhim eft, tum uero iuftu , qsiod fiime 

dum ad demonftradonem eft^ueleuidens aliquid 

fit oportetjuel quod prius fuit demoftratum * No 

eft ig/tur ne<^ de (omnigeneradone mentio facie* 

~ da,nec5 

da,ne<5 dc concocJlioiiCjnecp auAioe, nec^ Je alib 
idgenus ullo, (ed ab ipfa (bla,nudacp fubiedaruni 
rerum (ubfi:anua,difquifitio fadenda,Ccuri in ptu 
molibrofedmus ♦ Qi?ippc jftatuentes aliudefle, 
quod enetgia, Cue acftu fit , aliud quod poteftate, 
de co quod adu iam calidum,fr^idum, humidu, 
ficcum ue fit,prius diflerendum efle diximus,{ub« 
indeadeaqua: poteflate fint ueniendum» Porro 
eorum , qua:adu,calida,frigidajiumida,ficca,ue 
iuntjobuia, promptacp omnibus cognitio eft , ut^ 
pote qu2E tadu difcemi queat* C^i kilicet, & fgne 
ipfiim calidum effc docuit , & gladem frigidam ♦ 
Quod fialiaquapiam ratioenotionem,agmtione 
que calidi, frigidiue habent,dicanthanc nobis ♦ 
Inauditam enim ac nulKus efFedus fepientiam 
promittunt^Immofi ucrum fateri licebit ftupo* 
rcm potius,fi rerum fenfibilium ahum quempiam 
haberc feiudicem meliorem putent,quam ipfe 
Gt (enfiis. Atqui fi eorum,quae a<fhi calida funt,ali^ 
us efleiudex ^ tadus , nulliis poteft , tangant iam 
deinceps multos iiiros,tum (encs, tumadolelcens: 
tes,tum pueros, tum infant^ ♦Ita enim inuenient, 
qui magis,minus uc calidi fint*Si de rebus fenflbili 
bus ratioalcs demoftratioes quacrut,ia de muc ipfa 
inquirendu eft,cenfenda ne fit,fi'cut oibus hoibus 
apparet,candida,an ficut Anaxagoras afleuerauit, 
no cadida. 6 uero de pice flmili modo coruocg, ac 


tdiquis onimbusj eftimaBdum^Ncc^enimfi non 
babcndaeft ocuiis fides de a!bo qiiodusdtnt^de 
nigro (inc demonftrauone fides eft habenda^Om 
nia jgfrof quae feofiii apparentjfi iatn fide carcre difp 
cusifjiiec olorem album €& dicant,nifiprius id w 
dsrkit rarione Jmmo nec calcenijnec diem^ncc fb» 
km,Ad eimdemmodiim 8c deuoce^auribus fide 
abfogeot,& de odorc, naribus,& de omni tangi^ 
bilijipfi tadus {cnliii, Et none hscc liint pyronis he 
(itado^&C niigx immenfef Sane equum nierar,eos 
qui optioiam fedamin phiioibphia dcgiil€nt,quae 
fciicet ca!idum3fr^id5sbumidum,& ficcam prin* 
cipia & dementa ftatuitj oon iotatitum iMkiuifk a 
oiris qiiih^cpoluenjnt,utqd^ omnisdemoftra* 
donis principia iunti qua?qp fenfiu , quarcp intelk* 
clui lunt manifefta non cognofcerent^Etprofedto 
quifquis de his addubitat , fruftra de ali}s inquirir, 
Vtpotene undc quidem fit incepturus quic^ fibi 
f elinquens* Vndeigitur in tatn diuerfim uiam dif 
ucnenint, ac fenfibilium rerum cognitionem ratio 
ne coniequi tenranmt:' Ego (anene cogitare quide 
poffiim » Eoqi quod a<ftu calidum eft , taclu iudi* 
co.Siquid autem adhuc calidum non eft,fed ut ta*? 
ie fiat eft idoneum, quoduticp poteftate c^IidiHH 
appdlamusjd ratione inueftigare ccnor: hij uero 
omnia net/o quo pavfto {ubuatuntj& in argumc 
tis prolixe retoricannir.Sedhos niittamus,Iliius ta 


men nucminimcobliti quodunum prauoru dogs 
matu principium fit,nihil dc demoftrationeprius 
meditatum iimulresip(asinquirere,fimul ueluti 
fcientem quidnam demonjftratio fit, demonftrare 
tentare^Denuo igitur ad propofitum reuerfi^j calist 
dum quod in 2etatihus cognoicerecupimus , pri* 
mum 8^maxime,ta(fhiiudicemus«Erit autemopti 
mum iudiciu in uno, eodemq^ unius infantis cor>^ 
porc jpoteft enim SC qiialis calor illi aiue bienniu 
fucrit jin memoria repom' ♦ Et qualis nuncfit poft 
duos forteuel tris interpofitos annos*Si naqp mu:^ 
tatio omuiho ulla ad calidum ,frigidum ue inlant i 
fadaiudcbit, nullum prseterea negotiiim erit , qui 
uCc^ ad florentem a^tatem futurus e xcefldis fitcolli 
gere.Quod (i plures puellos pluribus conferre flo 
rentibus a?tate uelis^gracilesgradlibus, quadratos 
cjuadratis,& crafla craflis conferes , gequeuero & 
quicoIore,&reIiquisomnibus ( quoadfieripo:? 
Jteftjfimiliter {ehabeant,Quippe fi diflFerentiamin 
a^atibus inuenirc ftudeas, in fimilibus ^ maxime 
licet naturis^eam inquifirionem tutius fadesPorro 
inconrrarijs naturishanc diiquirerenonparuier* 
roris eft occafio* Cum interim non tam explorato 
rum corporum aetatis, cp naturalis temperamenri 
graria differcnria exiftat. Ad eundem modum , tii 
tii<fluuniuerib tum temporum,quibus explorat 
ftacu,parimodo fehaberia corpora eliges , no exer 

H citatum> 

no m qui (bk incaluit jei qui ex fegorer^, no eS 
qui uigilauir, d qui dotmiuic ^ riec doiicpeos qiiiss 
bus cotraria efi uel oamra^uel uidlus rado^uel quse 
iibet rerum circunftetia » Sed rdiqua omma (ins: ^ 
fieri licct parfa,uiia aetateeKcepca:pari niodo R iinu 
eundemqp puellum cum kipCo conferes , omnes 
efus esternas drdiftantias fimiles ad unguem lerss 
uabisrquo lciKcetj fi qua baru alicuius caufei calore 
BC fr igore difFerentia cootigis , actaris mutatioi no 
imputet* Longam ribi expenendi ratione fortafle 
tradere uideonSed planc uerifliniam, atc^ ex ipfa 
rei quxGta* ellenda d€iiimpta.Sicutin bis^quacdc 
demoftratioeicripfimus,a nobis eft prodim»Ta 
uefo fortailecompendiariauolesminime curatis, 
fi &I6 fit,Scico ergo no folu fal&m te^fed etialcnga 
ingrefKmi uia;Necp tribuSjquatuor ue annis j qcF 
fandii»Quantii enimacdpiex mcmoratoru uiroru 
controuerfia licet,non efl^ quod putemus clare ali 
quid demonflrari pofle. Sed nec rationabile om* 
nino eft,ex ip quse pofteriora finr^ea probari quas 
iunt priora,Ergo calidu, (r^idumq^corpus quod 
feltan adu,nec adhuc poteftate tale fit/enfti iudi« 
cemas,miflb niic tij prioru iudicio tu reliquis om* 
nibus no£is*Et te iam ceu re<Se iudicaturii , ad ipfa 


erjperientiaremitto, Meuautiudicium ipfeinter^ 
pretatonComplura enim deinceps corpora,non 
pueroru modo ueru etiam infantium, adolefectiu, 
&C a!tateflorentiu,curioietangens»neutros ucra lo 
cutos inueni^neceos qui abfoiuto (ermonc calidio 
remjnee eos qui frigidiorem efle florente etat e , c^ 
puerilem dixerunt» Sieirim reliquis omnibus qua? 
extrinfecusadueniunt alterationibus ciraimciiis, 
eas cpdc esfolasecateproueniuntj differentias cifa' 
maueriSjneuter ablbluteloquenti uidebitur tibi ca 
fidior*Quippe diffident eorum caloi-es qualitate, 
qu^ ex imparicate difflatus aeatur. Cuius rei oc^ 
caCone nonnulli uel eos, qui feum uerfeitur , uel . 
ieipfbs fallentes,ali] puerorum^ali] iuuenumjUalen 
tiorem eile calorem autumant^Efl enim puero^^ 
rum , calor magis halituofus , Sc copiofos, S^ tan 
genri blandior , iiorentium calor (ubacre quiddam 
nabetjacnoniuaueJ^sccigitur tangcuti occurlus 
differentia,pluresinducit ,utflorentium corpus 
calidius efle pronuncient. Res uero aliter lc baber» 
Qiippequiin uaria materia tadumfiium adca^* 
lorem , tum ualentiorem , tum imbecilliorem, 
tum paran difcernendum exeraierit^huicnodu 
bito puerorucalore, florentium calori, uci paicm 
uel ampliorem uifum iri.Effc porro exercendi rado 
ha!C Jncipieiidum enim ab eo qd' euidcns maxime 
€[}:, Balinearu aer ita eft aliqn cafens, ut nemo cum . 

H i) fcrat. 

ferat.Sedunmeo uerfams uideatur, Aiiquando 
ita cft frigidus,ut (udare in eo non Ct. lain tertium 
quocp & ab his diuerCim, quem uti<^ maxfme vt^ 
quirimus,tempcratum aeris ftatum,quid rcfert 
diccre^Idem tres caloris ftatus , in (blfjquoqpap^ 
parentaqua* QuippequdcS^caiida adeout urat, 
& frigida adeOjUt necalefaciat quide,8^ temperata 
adeo,ut calefaciat modice,fepe cernitur ♦ Ergo C te 
uterficcalidior perconter,aquane temperata,aa 
acf temperatus,neutrum diccre poflis. Cum enim 
ambo fimiliter corpori blanda Cnt, Sc medio aeri tc 
perie,altcrum eorum dicere calidius eile , alterum 
frigidius,nulla dici ratione uidetur Jam & intell^as 
aquam Iabri,ca e(Ie caliditate ut ferucat , aut aerem 
bainc! prorliis inflammatura, ab utroq^ te pari mo 
do dcurendum conftat, Rurfus fi aquam ita intelli 
g€sfr:gidam,utproculagIaciando non abfit,aut 
aercm prorlus re&igeratum,fic ut cum ningitjCon* 
lpicimr,patet , quod utriufiiis occurfiipari modo 
f efiigeraberis/^eiiicp . Ergo fiimraum tum colo 
rem,aim frigus finiilitcr in aqua,fi'militer<^ in aerc 
finge pr^terea medium amborum exexmorum 
ftatum jfimili modo in utroc^ conftituc , hoc cafii 
quodin medio tntemallo extremorum,8£m€di] 
ftarys m ki aere eft , tum aqua^eafdem exceilus di 
ftantiaeqi ratfones habebit. Tantocp dices alteru 
mediocri dlc calidius ^ quanto alcerum ♦ A d eundc 


inodtim & fr^idttjs ^ medioae,tanto cOe aquam 
abquando diccs , quanto &C aercm , Tametfi fuus 
utriuiq? occurfus tangenti,idem non fit utric^.Ne^ 
cp enim limili modo aqua temperata ficut aer tati^ 
pcratus tadu afFidt* Et quid opus eft in tam dsHli' 
milibus excmplum proponam ♦ Cumipfe aer qui 
fimiii fit caIore,uarie tangenti occurrat , prout Aias 
uduti cal^inoius 5^ halituoius , alias ueluti fuligi^ 
nofiis Sc f umofus: interimpurus omnino eft . Igic 
in pluribus i]lclemcp differencfbus a:qualitas calo#» 
rts confii^it ♦ QuasinconCyderatis quafi inequalis 
fitjimponit, proptere a fcilicct quod no imdequass 
q^ fimilis apparet ♦ Cseterum homo , qui rauones, 
quas propofui expenderit,5<C ienfum in multa par 
ticularium experieria exercuerit, is nimirum ccqua 
fitatem caloris inpueris florentibufcp inueniet,nec 
eo faIIetiir,quod alter in humida,aker in ficca iiib^ 
ftanria repre(entctur»QuippcIapis aliquando pa^ 
ricumaquacalore cllepotcft^nulfumeo fadente 
di(crime,quod lapis ficcus fi^tjaqua humidaita igic 
mihicum pueros luuenes adoldcentes miHies con 
(ydera(Iem,pra?terea eundem infantem, puerum, 
adolefcencecp facfHinihiio calidibr uifus eft ♦ Nec 
puer ^ «tate florens , nec a?tate fioreiis qua puer» 
Sed tantum qucmadmodum dixi in pueris magis 
halituofus,8<rmultus,& (uauis: in fiorentibus c^a 
guiis^'ccus,necfi'militer {uauiseflecaloris occur^ 

H ii) fus. 

£i$ . Siquideiii pucroruni fubftadse^utpotehumi 

dssyiwimm foraseffliuCjfloreiitium fubftanti2& 

parumiitpoteilccac Jtac^neutereorum fimplici* 

i?eniidct calidior ♦ Sedakcr jiiulticudinedus quod 

difHat,ca!t€f acriinon^ • Quippeinild caloris puer 

pliis babcEjeiuicp blandioris , fi modo ex fanguine 

$C (ttmne ortu mbet^Iu fiorentibus sctarejexiguus 

Sc iiccus^neciimiliter iiiauis calonaiigeti occurrit* 

Bgo calidL.fogidic^ corporis folus radhis eilin*» 

d€x;hiimidi aut SC^cci um cu tadhijrado ♦ Quips» 

pe qd^ilcal eii^dorii prorliis efl* At lioctaifluoiii 

nino dionoicit. Non taine fi quid dum eftjide ilra 

tini Sc ficcu eli:*Etenim infeperabilis a ficco corpo 

£€ doriria eft* Ncn tame eius tinius propria, Nam 

& quod a FrigQre coocretum eft", dun^m cemit U 

cutg|-ides*Quo iiti<^ni!nusficci,humidi(^adeutf 

da ftadm dficretio eft , ante idlicet ^ eftimatii &^ 

quemadmodu fein calore habeant & frigorcNes» 

<p emm fiquid cum iummo frigore r eprefentat du 

ram,id edamiiccu eft.Nec fi quid cu iiehementi ca 

lore eft molle^ide ftadm eft humidu ♦ Veru cu me 

diocriter eft calidu , m eftimare duru ne an mollc 

fit oportet^Sieaim mollc fit^bumidu eft:fi durum^ 

ficcu, Vernm fiha?cfta (e habet parnum,qu5e in hu 

mano corpore iunt ficca?» nuUa eft humida . Necp 

enim tantaeilein eo frigiditas poteft,ut aKquid in 

ipfo concpefcerefn duridem queat,Poteft enim 


quod prius furt fluxilejaliquado conCTefcere ueluti 
adeps»Quod enim okotim in ianguinej fiuxilec^ 
&C pingue eft , ubi in fiigidum uemt locum , cos* 
gitur : dunjm tamen ne fic quidcm efFicitur.Com 
mode igitiir dicfhim ucteribus eft, huniidiflimam 
dle adipem. Secundo poit eamioco camoftira §e 
nus.Eius piurcs iiint (pecies ,prima quide qiix ^^ 
prie caro appellatur ,qiiam iciiicetnui^in corpo 
re per le inutiiies , itdi eft perpeaio mulculi pars. 
Ab haccuiufcp uiicau propriafubi-tantia eft « Ea 
Erafiilrratus parenchymauocat» Quafic^ ^prepar 
ua,leuiq^habet,parum imell^ens cuiui^ uifcens 
adHonema hiaic cami acceptam reierri ; ied horum 
noncft nunc tempiis^Quodautcm ipfiim cerebri 
pulmonifcp proprium corpus proxfmu adipi hu*: 
miditat js rationc fit, ex moliicf e eius coniccflare li^ 
cct • Non enim a fr^do congdatur , cu nec calorc 
fundatur, propinquam ijs naturam habet mcdul^ 
feuNoncfttamen dufdeiiigeneris cum cerebro & 
(pinalinneduila,ea qujc in quolibet habeturofTe* 
Sed cerebru & fpinae medulla eiufSem iunt gcne 
ris^Reliqua? oes medullae alterius naturae iiint.Eft 
ramen hifmidius ac calidius cerebruj^lpinalis me 
dulIavEoq^ eriam mollius jpracterea ipfius cerebd 
priores partes tatofiit hmdiores^quato moOiores: 
omnia tame haec cute no huidiora modo (unt , fed 
cdam frigidioraj unocp uerbo omne exangue fr^i 

dius fan^ 

dius fanguineprseditoefi: ♦ Proxima cuti eft moU 
lium neruorum natura ♦ Duriores aurem inhun«V 
do &ficco,{ecundum cutisnaturam lehahent^Ca 
lore ab eius naturatantum ab(unt>quatum confen^ 
tiens eft exangue corpus a fanguinepraedito abe(i 
(e:lienis autemraium, & iednons caro,tanto cute 
eft humidior,quanto ef l moHior * Calidior autem 
quaotomagis abondat fanguine^Iamcordis caro 
omoibushiis tantoclt£cdor,quantoeft durior* 
Calidior ueronon modohis ,iedeeiam omnibus 
planecorporis parriculis ♦ Quodetiam (enfii clare 
dcprehendaslicetjinpedoris animalis diffedioc» 
fi dj^itum m iiniftrum eius imum immileris Jnue^ 
nies enim locum huoc omrji^ qua? in animali func 
non paulo calidiflimum» At iednoris, lienis^ renu, 
&pulmoniscaro,iimp]icis cuiu(Ham natutse eft, 
circa cuiuic^ uifceris uenas^arterias-,& neruos aes» 
fcens^Cordis^flmpIex camisnaturanon eftjfed 
fuot in eofibra*,quales in muiculis cemimus, qui* 
buscarocircumheret^Cagtenimnoncft tdem fi^ 
brarumgenusaledqua^iiamuiculis habmtur ner* 
uorum^&ligamenroriim Cint partiaiiaB*Cordis 
propria quscdam fibranim eft ^edes, seque icili# 
cet uc umarum,funfca?,atq^ arteriarum Jtemcp in» 
tefb'nomm,i!entricuJi utm,&: uelicse utriufcp,! icet 
eniminhis quoc^ inftrumenris propria quaiida 
uidere carnera/uis ipfbnimfibris cMrcumnafceme* 


Atqiie hae quidem camcs,cute (unt caiidiores ; fi^ 
br« uero ^ cutis partim paulo magis, pareim pau 
lo minuSjtum frigidairjtum ficca? iunr,partim f imi^ 
les omnino curis lubftantiw ♦ Porro omnes mem^ 
bransB cutefont CcdoreSjUeluu cerebri,&: ipinalis 
medulte inuolucra,qua[? mininges dicuntur • Sunt 
cnim hx quoqp manbrana?» lam I^amenta omnia 
quanrocute (linr diiriora,tato fiint &: ficciora.Ten 
dones quoc]^ tametfili^amentis iunt molliores ,at 
tamen cute luculenter iunt dmiores.Cartilago ues= 
ropoft I^mentum deinceps eft,pra?terea mcdis? 
um quoddam inter ea corpus , Appellantid anaro 
ratci quidam iwgoxoviA§w«AH crvv<At<r^ov, quafi uero 
cartilagineum ligamcntum dicas^Eft autem id du^ 
rum,cartilaginofumi:^ ligamentiun « Os uero om*» 
nium qux cutis operit,duri{I?mum eft* At eorum 
quazexcuteextatficcilUmus e pihis^DcindecQrmj 
mox ungues, &ungulae,8^calcaria , & rofhra^quaj 
q^hisin {ingulis animalium rationecarennum G^ 
miles fiint partes,Succorum oprimus , & maxime 
propriiis,ac domeftiais ianguis eft ^ huius uelutf 
iedmietum,acfex,atra biliscft.Qua^idcirco ttim 
frigidior,tum crailior (aripuinc eft . Sicut flaua bi* 
lis longe calidior,(ngidifIimum uero achumidifli 
mum omnium » quac in animali habentur , piiuita 
eft. Inftrumentum autcm quoid cognofcit , ipie 
cft ta<flus . VelutiHyppocratcs inlibello de homi 

I nisnatura 

nis naturamonflraulc * Ca*terumquod (ngida (2t> 
mms ta^lus dilcemir. Quod ucro humida quoq^ 
parfcer ta<ftus,mfiis^& mtio iudic:ant.Et tadus qui 
dem ac uifus » quod ialis tjs cemicur « Ratio uero, 
ubi non caloris copia, fed naturalihumore taleeffe 
adhunc modum ie iiabcntX)e ijs,qii2e temperanie 
tacomieantur deincepsagendum»Comttac enim 
ea & quacdidaiam funtnmmo potius infeparabi*! 
lia omnino fiint, A ficco quidan corpore dutida^ 
ab humido moliides . Si tamen cum tepido calore 
dhkd 8C craiIitudohabiais,&gradlitas,tempe:« 
rataiequuntur« Non eamodo quas naturaliafunt, 
(edettamfi quaexlongaconiutmidinelunt contra 
dh* Mulcos uquidem qui natura gradles Rierant, 
plngues redditos uidiscontracp qui pinguas fue^ 
ratit^gradles^Iliis quidem ex otio& & deticata uita, 
toto temperamento ad humidius mutato.His ue^ 
romuItatoHerantia,&curis,&tcnuiui(Su perfic=» 
catts»Diccmus uero &horum di/cemendoiiimno 
tas«Sanu$ enim eli^talis ne quifpiam natura fit , an 
c% coniiietudine redditus noimet per aliquot figna 
diioernere poile,^ ab dio id quarr ere .. Sane eiu& 
modi iignorumautor,dequeut reliquorum ornni* 
um,mirus eil Hyppocrates^Siquidem quibui« 
cunque latiorci uenae iiint » hi calidiores natura 
funt, Quibus angufhbres^contramagis fxigU 


di.Calorisnan€popusef?: hasdi!3tafe33tti^ex* 
tcndeie Jca raaonabjliter in idemferc recidit uena^ 
rum anguft!a,€uni habim pir^iu^dc craffiore Jiabi 
ms gradlis cum uenarum laxitace * Quod (i ouis fi 
mul pingui^craffuicp e, ac uenas laxas babct^is co 
foecudinisalicmus occaiioe nonaturapif^uiseft 
^edditus^Sicut cdiuerib^fi quis anguilas habct 
iienaSj &gradliseft »ne huiicquidcm calcm ^ffc 
natura!Kcei6eft, Quincum famesurgei: medios^ 
cntatemex laxicate uenaaim , dC angiiftia ^ non a 
c^erototius corporis habitu ipedfinda efle asc* 
Quippcqm^^iftas habent uenas ,€x^ui liint 
fai^imis^ncclongam inediam ftrunt«Qiibus 
lace, his copia fanguinis eft, 8<C citra noxam d^ 
bo abfhnentur * Caufc horum cuidenres iam 
{mt, ijs quianimum aduerterint,tametfianie non 
referantur*Sedquoniam non omnes aduertunt, 
neceflum fortafie.erit aliquid eorum caufe dbdf^ 
le^ Quicquid in fsnpuinc pingue ,lene^ & tej= 
nueeft^idincalidioribus corporibus alimenaim 
quoddam calido fit, In frigidioribus feniaturfr 
Cunque id uensc tranfiniferint ubi in frigidas par^* 
riculas inddit,quodgenus raembranae {umin rjs 
concreiac Jn partibus uero natura cahdioribus, 
cuiufmodi camofas iunt, a calorc ipib abfumi** 
tur , ac digeritur , Niii fic ubi frigiditats tempera * 
mcnti eriam ui<ftus indulgendor,ipfis camofis par 

I i) tiailis' 

tkdiB adipls aliqljid aHinat . Qua raiione et ia cjuse 
hkmedelicelcync aiiimalia^nonraro inueniuncur 
adipe obefij&fcetninse uiris iuntpiguiores*Qd' 
(cMm foemina maf i eil fr^idior Sc pliirinmm do 
mi uerikiir^ Ac quicuncp corporumhabitus 8C ti^ 
peramenti naEura lunr dC mediocri exercitarione 
unintur , hos necefle eil eufarcos efle , id uero eft 
fncdiocdommno corporis habitu* Quibus uero 
hurmdii abundatsS^caloramediocriEatc fiimma 
aon longe ^ft , hi corpulcnti , fiue camofi fiuru» 
Corpdeodrurfus fionirsquinaturafynt tcmpera^ 
tuC^Smm defides Bc oiioli uiuunt . Quippc di* 
^um a uetcribus, commodiffime eft , confiieiudi 
nem acqisifitiiiameile naturam^Necfortafie opor 
tebie cum id iam fanel dixerimus , in quouis euam 
capite dcfinirenatura ne fr^idior, an ex confuetu* 
dine qmfpiam fitredditus* Sed iMiid legentibus re 
temperamento corporis habitus perfequi,Sur igii^ 
tur oonnulli qui & graciles fint,& uenas paruas ha 
beant Sed U ex i]s quempiam inddas , adeps excif 
det. Quam conftat cuti^ad intemam eius menbra* 
nam fubnafci • Etraro id quidem in qiris conlpici^ 
tiir:io fceminis fepiflime inucnitur.Eft nanc]^ tum 
frigidioris natura[»,tum uita^magis defidiofa:eiu& 
modi nota,Si qiudem adcps cx habitus frigiditatc 
gignitur . Corpulentia ;flue carnis abundantia ex 


fingiuntscopia nafdtut Mcdiocrim tcn^peratae 
naturse eft nota.Et corputai quide,oniniiio plus 
adipis habent ^ temperaci. Ncc tamv n pro carnis 
femper poriione adeps Cmul augetur^Sed abos ha 
bere plus carni-salios plus adipis iiideas , ali]s am 
bo pari modo runtadau(fta,Et quibus quidem ani 
bo pari modo flint aucfta, his tantum fiipra tempe^ 
rata natura humoris eft , ^tu dc frigoris . Quibus 
autem plus eft adipis,in his fingidi plus eft,^ hu^ 
midi Eque ut quibus caro eft plenior , his humo* 
ris plus i jfto eft.Non tamen etiam frigoris.Cum 
cnim calori intra debitos fines manenti , boni (aii* 
guinis accedit copia, necefle eft corpulentia fequa 
tur,Quantum autem (upra mediocritatem cfle (an 
giiis debeat,td quidem meniiira Sc pondere,often 
dere non eft.Ratioe tradere Jicer* Quippe ubi niil 
lum adhuc morbofixm iymptoma , craflato corpo 
ri incidit , humoris abundatia intra iiinitatis interim 
eft fines • Monfiratum enim nobis dc in alijs eft, 
non paruam in eo ftatu,quac fanitas didtur,necefla 
rio fitatuendam efle latitudinem. Quin nunc quo* 
c^ in omiii fere fermone nofbo apparet. Qui rems^ 
peratam,mediamc5naturam,reliquarum ueluti ca 
nonc femper flatuamus» Qua? iiero ex huius utrasj 
cp funt parteontempcratas cefeamus, Quod uticp 
nonfaceremus,ni{iin (anitatis ftatii,maioris,inino 
rifcp ratio inueniretur ♦ Eft enim alia (anitatis , alia 

1 iij morbi 

morbiifiSempmes.Morbi quidemea quse a mt^ 

dia tmi^ttk ioiigiffinic abeft* Sanitatis qusc paii^ 
lum-cyioirc auteini^iodum nc hfcquidcm mai* 
{yo.&pondcreficct * Csecerumintcmperamcnri, 
quodincra fanirate habctur fuffides nota cft:^od 
oalla&odio aoialis mamfeftc iir adhuc Isefa^Qiass 
mtn ^itii r iotmiallym eft mm id,quod pafedi& 
Cme hm&onan ohitfiL id quod manifcfte adf o* 
mm aliquam baber oblefam^tanto cft profedo & 
iamtacis.;^&dift€perantiac5 quxintrafanitatc cofc 
ftit iatitodo* Ab hac ^sima eft smeperies morbo** 
la^as lciliceg aial inrempcramcti y itio ^grotat ♦ No 
oiim \mm tantii i20xalaborai:fed etia ali]s affcdi^ 
bus oo pauciSjde quibus in ijs^qux de morbonim 
differentijs loibcmuSsdtffufios agetur . Nuncre;» 
dcundom ^ diuerdculum eft:Siait! tmm natuias» 
li calore optimam feriiantc tcmperiem , humidum 
quod iotra lanitaiis mmims eft audum^non adi;* 
pemmodo io homioejled etiamcorpulentiam gi* 
^mtfiC adipem quidem partius adi^it, camem ue 
romultoliba-aliys augetjtaaitfcs^fi humidum & 
ficdi mediocrimtc ad ongue intcr lefouetjcalor au 
mn in homine fitminor^ neccfle eft huius corpus 
adipc^j^ camis copia magls abudee» At ucro fi ca»» 
lor aiioeatur,feuercp mediocritate akcra cotrane* 
cas,minus erit el aiali adipis ^ carnis* Sicut cdiucsr 
fo fi qn pollet ficcujalteracontrarimtc mediumo** 


duleruance, Scgracilius &dnrius,corpusciiadetr 
Hscc a me dida lunr ,patctqj no folu rone m61ka< 
tu efle qcP fimpliccs in aialiii corporibus itcperies 
babcant,(cd etiam quod flngularum inanifefte fibt 
tiotx. Ncc eas modo in calorCjfrigorCjmoUitie, &C 
duiitie:(edetiainrcliquisomnibus habituiim cor 
poris differentijs^Quarum de ijs,qua? exgracibta*» 
te oC craflitudine fpe&ntiu' mox diximus,de relijp 
qiiis nunc dicamus.CaJida igiwr & ficca intempe 
ries hirfuta eft,u€r5 ca in iummo* Mediocriter aut 
quaecalida quidem eft^fedin altera contrarictate 
mediocritatcm habet • Simihter & qux ficca quide 
cft,(cd in calido & frigido media eft teperie ♦ Eft 
nt eaquo<^ modicc hirta» Nuda pilis (iintfiigida 
oiateperameta,fiueeamedioaitaie habentinhu 
mid/tate,fiueimmodfce.Ca!terum ad iummugla:? 
braeftfirigida temperies 3C humida.Minus hac, 
qu35 frigida eft ,fed in alrera contrarictate tcm :* 
perata ♦ Ad huc minus , quas fi-^ida eft & ficca «. 
Quanquam putet aliquis ficuc fieri non poteit, 
ut in terra ficca herba? nafcantur, nutriantur , & in^s 
crementumcapiant,fic necpSiin ficca cute*Eft au^* 
tcm fccus. Quippe terra, ut terra ficca dicitur. Cui? 
ris , ut cutis : itaque ficcitas,quas in terra eft, maxiss 
me fme humore cft^Quse uero in hominis eft cor 
pore,&eius fimilium animalium,nechumoris eft 
cxpCTS,8Cmaxieomniu ad piloru generatione eft 


idonea.Siquide exfjs qua? Itliccatefla intc&aSjnty 
nec cruftatis , ueluci oftrcis , locnftis, cancris : fcd 
nec cxi^^ quaein cauemis delitefcunt , qualcs (unt 
ierpences,nec qua: i^uamaca (imc , cuiuffnodi iunt 
pifceSjOriri pili poflut. Suntenim honim cutes ue 
re^acq^ in totum ficca? ritu a fta»,uel petrae . Caete^ 
rum exhis» quac molli ilint cute , ut homo , quanco 
ucicjp (iccior calidiorc^ cutis fueric,tancomagis po 
teft pilos gignere. Na uc ab exeplo terrae, cjdi^iM ^ 
ponut,no recedamus:herba: necin ficca & fquales? 
te admodum cerra nafci poflunc, nec in humida & 
lacuftriaienim cum abfiimi ccperiCjredundatia hu^ 
moriSjCumenafcuncur e cerra» Aiigencur aucem lar 
giusjubi haec quocp ficcefcicrmodice quidem in ue 
re,celerrime uero Sc plurimum ineunce apftace«SiC 
cancur autem omnino,arefa<fla cerra,a?ftate ia me* 
dia,Iicetcp cibi( fi placec ) nunc quo<^, ficuti in prio 
re libro demonftratu cft,uer ip{um,propterea qd' 
ex temporibus anni cemperacum eft,temperari cor 
porisid aflimilare curi , poriiBmumc^ hiuus cem* 
poris medium.Tum enim terra quocp ipia,medio 
quodam ftacu humoris,i5ccicacifcp eft.Quod aucc 
ueris acftari eft proximuni, id iam ficciorem iufto 
reddidicterram,hoc etiam amplius, arflas inchoa« 
ta,Quam igicur dico calidam,& ficcam cutem h3c 
maxime cerras fiatui aflSmiles qua? abeuce fic uere, 
uelineunce azftate. Nammediaa^ftace in fummo 


cfl: ficca perinde ut tcfta intedoru animaliu tcgmc 
noD ut hojninum,(uum,afinoruin,cquorus aui al^ 
teriufcijiu{quafn€onim,qiia?pjIis ueftiutnr , Qua 
rc ii cuiem tcrrae compararc uoiunt^haiftenus quo 
qucrcmconfeitfrccum i]s,qua[rprius diximus in* 
iicnieiit. Ipfiueroicfeexomonymia non anjmadi 
ucrfa faHiitJn ficca enim & calida cote muJtos ma*» 
gsaoftp nafe pilos diximus * Nimirum ut dehomi 
n€ nel animali pilis pr^dito,non de ofbcis/aut can 
cris uerbafacientes^Quippc pcr omnem cutem di 
geritpr fenpcr aliquid a calido, quod lecum etiam 
interni humoris nonnihil aufert, uenim in quibus 
humida cads d't,8c plaoe moHis , qualis tnodo con 
crefteos caieus^in his eorum quge cxclderum^uia^ 
pcr aitem non manent , parribus lcilicet eius^quae 
prius diOidebat,rurfas interieurjstis* At in quibus 
dura €ft,non abfcnilis ca&o iam coado, perfora^ 
tur quidcm e orum quxexeut trasfluxu* Com auj^ 
tem tmius imid per ficdtate nequeaf,meattis ipfos 
imiiiotatos tcmat, Quietiam pfrpefuo transfiiieo 
dam, idu affidiie magis fiftolaiitur.Si igiair quod 
cosfliiit uei halitos uelhiimorpiiriislitjhalituicer 
re cekr,minimecp irnpeditus tralirus eft, hiimor in 
exilsoribus ipiramcntis nonunqua hacret , Aliquid 
etiam intro reairreread profundom cogitur * Sin 
ue!uditil!gino{us,cralIii(c^,etterra3S uapor lit/ub 
indecontingitutinangufHs fpirametis impadusr 

K neciacile 

necfacile ruifuin jbitroredeat^neeuacuari poiTir* 
Hunc igitur af ius rurfiim e profundo Ribiens ferir, 
proriumc]^ inipellic,tum hunc rurfiis alter , atcp sUu 
aiius*Acmukos mihieiulmodi uapores , fui^ino 
tos atium fuper aiium impacfiros, tcmperie compli 
can,coniungic]^ tntellige,ac unum ciuimodi eflRce^ 
recorpu5,qualeeftea,quasforis cemitur fuligo, 
niii cpod his inquantum fpidatum efl: , intantum 
etiam per traiifitus anguftiam ftipatum,in angufta 
prorius rcdacfkim eft fbrmam* Vbiautem tale cor 
pus totutnobftruxeritmeatumdeincepsiam ulo 
ienter i^fhim , a fimilibus fui qutbus exiais non efb 
cxcrcmcntis , totum interim propeliitur * Adeo ut 
cute exirecogatur,iam lori formam adeptum ♦ Ad 
Cmiles autem,quod inmeatu eft impaftum , ha"i«! 
bae,ftirpss ue oeluti radid* Quod uero cx aiteex<^ 
mjpi ueluti ftsrpi,iie autem mgcs pilus, cum dai 
fto y i caloris uapore,exacmaicum in exadhm fu 
i^Hiem miitatur,8auus uero^cu uapor minus tor^ 
rctur»Quippe quod tum eft fmpadum fkuae biV 
Jis,non nigrse fecuientum exeremetum eft« Albus 
uero pilus ex pituita nalcitur , RuHus flcuti coloris 
flaui albicp eft medius,iic eius generatio ex pituito 
fscbilioiaec^ kds media quadanatura ^ueni(«Cn 
Ipipiiifiuntudpropter ficdtatem tcmperamenti 
wd proptef meatii,tn quo radicant «Et propter Ik^ 
drate qiude,ad eum modu quo corigii , quae igni 


Jjlus iufto ficcantur«Et quid cor^iarum merniniC 
(ceft opus,cu ipfos pi!os,ubi igni propius fimt ad 
motiyprotenus intorqueri uideas» Atc]p itaquidem 
©ranes Acthiopcs fiint cri(pi ♦ At propter meatuu 
in qu]Sbus radicantur natura, ad hunc modum Cu 
exhalatio fepeimbccillior eft , ^ ut reciam uism fi 
bi molin poiBt , pro modo quo infleftit, edamme 
atu (uu figurat* Inceri uero exhalano htis uales eft« 
Sed duriore cutis natura, reda f erri r cgione pror: 
iiibica,tn latus fiedtitur: ita ut extrinfecus uidere li^ 
cec^nohaiicu modo,autfum5,fed edaflgmma ipfa 
cufurlliim s^i uetaturjdiuifani utroc^ uct&js inob 
liquum agi Bic i^tiir corporis exhalatio,ubi prorss 
fiim agiprohib€tur,obIiquum (ihi tranfitu fub cu^? 
temolitur ♦ Donecloi^iore (patio coUecflam , ali^ 
quideai^rgeat, &foras flatusgaf . Eilqnambosf 
bus coeuntibus,&! primaexhafaiioois,qu^mea;s 
m fiixit imbecillitate , Sc cuds ficcisare ^ obfiquiias 
piioru radicibus contingic * Qiales autem in radi*s 
cefinguntur^talcs racionabile eftperpetuo fore« 
Neqp etiim durorum 8C ficcorum corponim quip 
piaaiiiiprius mofliaCjfitigiinrcdupotAtcyhacc 
quide eft piloru genoratio . Sequens eft|, ut caufas 
omnHx,qu«e teperaf netis i p^rii^ ^ate regioe,& 
corporis natura.difFer€iiti^ c6t^c,dicamus . Et^ 
go A^yptrj, Arabes,& Indj , oes deni^ qui cakV 
da &C Sccaregibne Micoluntjii^os, es^iq^ inae 

K t) mcmi, 

incnti^'ccos,ai(j30s,&fragiIcs pilos habent. Con 
tra qiuhumidam , frigidamcpregsonaii habitant , 
IDyri^^GermanijSarmatsej&omnis Scyuca plaga, 
modiceau<fliles,6^ gradIes,&re(fi:os,&rufos o^ 
ptinait. Quiuero inter hos temperatum colunt tra 
(fkuii,hi pilos plurimi inaemeUjSi: robuft ifEmos, 
8C modice nigros,& mediocTitcr crailbs , tum nec 
prorius aiipoSvnecomnino redos edutEt inceta* 
tibusadeundem modum infantium quidem pili 
Germanis Roredum 3ctate,Aethiopibus,Ephe;s 
borum ,& puerorum , ijs qui temperatum locum 
incoIuot,in robore, crailitudine , magnitudine , 8c 
coIore,ad portionem (e habent Jn corpomm quo^ 
que naturis ad 3eta£um,& regioniim portionem pi 
li fe habent,PuerienLim admodum parui nudi iiint 
pilis* Quod uticp nec mcatus adhuc ulius illis in cu 
te eft : nec fliliginoftim excremcntum » Incipientes 
aute pubelcere, paruos, 8^ imbcdlles cxigut» At 
qui iam floret ualetiores,& multos 8c rnagnos, & 
nigros habent*Quod SC frequentes iam meatus ijs 
fint fa<fli,* Et liiliginolls excrementis ^ pra? ficdtate, 
& calore abundetit^C^enim pili,qui in capite (ua 
percilf|s, & cili|s habsnrur , etiam pueris nohis fn<» 
fi.slcnnfiir . Siquidem generatlo i)s eft , non qiialis 
. fiefbis,fel qiial'ls ftlrpibus, prima rationea rsatura 
condieis^non tenipetameotum ex nccf llif ate Crque 
iibus»Siciid in iibrisde utupmkdmim eft mom 


ftratiimmemm hi quoqp quod qiiidcn) fi!it,id m^ 
niraearci acceptum fenint»Qiiod nsgn/ufi ue,uel 
alio qiiouis fim colorc, fd aetatis scmperanieco om 
nmo debent.Subrufienim fcre funt^ qiionia quod 
in meadbijs eft impacflumj nondum totum cl t ni* 
grum,Quippe cum humiditas niulta fit , di mnfi^ 
tm facilis & deuilio imbedlla.Boni uero increm c 
d,&modicecraffi fiint^propter exacmemorum 
quibus alontur^copiam * Qiisppe ipfa pars corpo 
ris in qua fiuntjficca eft ♦ Tota nacp calua offea eft» 
Cutis uero^quaeilli eft cu-cursdata^tamo reliqtia lo 
tius corpor^ cute eft ficdor ^quanto eciam eft du^ 
rior. Afcendit tamen tum ab !]s , quae drca cerebru 
funtjtum uero ex coto corpore/ulfginofi exaeirse 
dnonparua uis, Quo fitsUtquale^ataceHoroid* 
capids aids.&>c]^ radonabflius nonnuHi procedci* 
te tempore caluireddimtur . (^iibys fcilicet a pti^ 
modurior cutiserat^Quippemonftratom prius 
eft feneicendum pattes omnes ficcefeere * Fit auf c 
cutis non pauds uelud tefiacca^ubi lupra iuftu fu 
eritficcatajneaueroficutexpnoribus conftat nU 
hA nalci poteft Jtac^ edam intema manuum,& in* 
ferna pedum,fempcr^abra , dC pilorum ^xpcnidi 
(imtqdPficdf&mus^aenfiftimufcp Ct tendo is , qui 
fub cute habetur , Quibus autem ad fymmam ficci 
€atem,cutis capiti$ non prou€nit,imbecilIi his om^ 

K ii| nino 

mno^albiq^ pili fiunt) quos uu^o , caiios appeO St* 
hnbccMquidc^coucmcntis alifnentipenuria ,albi 
uero proptaeaquod a&iTientum quo aluntur, ue^ 
lutt Ctus ejfi: pituitae, quae ^atio computruit ♦ Vbi 
etiimmeatus edamnum manet,excrementum uc:f 
f o exiguum efi:,& Ictum,acJanguidea colorepros? 
peUitur,no dtdtmiliter puer edini aflicimr,iam cal^ 
ui fiunt homineSt conrcnefcunt , affndpite magis* 
«Caae£:unt magis a temporibiis, quonia illud om^ 
nium capms paitium eft CcdtSxmnu Hasret enim 
cuds £tlicofli tAidOstemporauerohiimidiora funt. 
Quod in his mu(culJmagnifiib cute habeantur« 
Omnis au tem mufculus camofus iit • C aro , tmn 
ofle,aimait€ humidior«Eft autemd quoddid^ 
mus dfligenter attcndenduiii,ne rnipmdentcs nof 
metipfos fallaiiiy s. Stcoti fe fallunt muld oc fjs , qui 
optimi uifi funt inediciQpi fi qiiem caluoni uidc 
rinijftaeim huic ficaimeOe lodiis corporis teny^ 
perameniumputant.Neqpcnimfimp!ic!t€rita co 
iccflari oporiiebatrScd prius illud de&iirepraeftite 
rat Jiumanu corpus alrjs a^quabjtiper totum tem* 
pcramento efle«Alijs,nscfjspauciS inequabilirer 
cfle affcdJi» C5 eoru alixpart{cul«e medioori & iu 
ft o iunt huidiores: alia?li^'diore$, aKac Scdores^ 
aliaccalidioreSj^ac ^pr&s tepcratae, acmedK^cres^ 
Porro huicmaximccflcattentoscouenit , ubicor/? 


a?quabi]icerconditurit,omne^partmitcr lecope 
tcta fnlatttudincjlonguudine, SC alntudine fauet; 
poi ucicparquabfliter aneperatu edc id corpus. At 
frcui corpori Thorax coHujS^ hucri inaximi (unt, 
lumbi parui,anguil:ic^,& caira gtacslia atc^ ficca, 
quomodoid dixeris omnibus particulis iimiliter 
affedumC^Quin (i crura ei crafla fint , 8<Iutnbi lati» 
Thoraxueroanguftus,neid quidc oibus pard<» 
bus equabilitereft tepcratu* Sut alia corpora,qui# 
bus maximu eft caput:alia qmbus paruu^quale pa 
flleribust Li crura alijs ble(a,a^ rara , Artmi quocp 
extrema alijs gradlia iunt,ali)s crafla» Et thorax di)s 
ut didhim eft ,!atus alfjs tabulai; ritu aziguftiis,quos 
Graed crawMAii§ uocant» Vbiueroopert3efea«e 
pulaeiflis^fiuecarne udi<^ plenac&nt&alarumo 
re pronae, nominantur a medicis eiufinodi naturae 
C&scce irr^^y^Aui^ Quantoperehaeftntuiciata: 
deperditohispaulo minus omni intemo §5atio» 
quo pulmo,& cor (ut Gta,nemme latet ♦ InnumenE 
uero aliaepariicularu corporis plane afFedioes fiJt. 
Vbi id a naturali analogfa > ^rinus in utcro matris 
adinacquale inteperieeftmutatu* Minime^it in 


poris docerc ^fitet,fimplidter de oibus ^nuciau 
Vcruipfiquocp experieuado<fH,fiquis impenle 
hirto cft pedlore ♦ Hunc audacem iudic3t , fin cru» 

ribus eft 

f &11S eft hiVf !S,(a!acem * Non nmm caiifarr? eiiam 
adiidiintuie^ cnim cum pciflus habereleoni iimi 
le diaint.Cnira ucrohirco,iaiii pfimam caufam in 

uencriiii£*Siquidem cur !eo quideni audax^hir ciis 
uero isdox &, ratio edam inuell^Sduni exigit, ha^ 

cftemss eni quod in re fieri ccraitur dixere, Caulam 
camendas omilere^Cseceruni is^qui natyraiifpecu 
lacione ^ft exer citaois Jkuti aliorum cmnium , ita 
horum quocp caulas iiiuenire tentatPropterea ess 
nioi quod inequali pardum temperamero lunt, no 
leomodo&tecussfed edasn csercroium pleiacj 
animaliuin-sidcirco ad alias adiones aliud eft pro^ 
num, Ac dehis qaidan Ariftotcles commode tia 
cflauit^Sed qood ad rem propo.&:am eft iide,id ia 
apparet^Ffoniinum fcilicettemperameota confy^: 
dcrantibus , fiigufcis pardum per fc cxaminandas 
eifeNecfi cui dioraxho&tus eft^huic totum cor^ 
pus (CalidluSjlicdufcp esneceffitatc patandu <> Sed 
piisrimom incorde^oris efte^Eoc^ audace : poi^ 
fc uero aliquaodo eciaiB huius ipfius td occafione 
acadere^quo nunm totymhis corpns limilitef cali 
dum ficcuiTicp & t quod lcilicet plurlmiim calods 
fcrliimhuc fpiraiicrit,ac<^^ambiaitoii abimt. 
Nani fi tota corpcris temperies eft aK|ualig mt his 
ftarimthora^^le umuerfcis latiffimus^oenas am^ 
pi2e,art€rixmagnx, esedem maxime^udieimitir 
fimecg p!iliantes»tu pfisrimi per totum corpus pili, 


Atcp hi quidcm m capite plurimi incrcmcti, mgrf^ 
& crifpj.Vti<5 in primasetaic. proccdcti ucro um 
pore caluitics cxcipict . Quin criam ciufoodi hosf 
mtnibus cum a^ualitcr {uncattcmp€rau,& robu;^ 
ftum,& cxadc ddiiiiatum,& mufculofum totum 
corpus crtt»Tum cuus nigrior, durior ^ atcp hirlu^ 
tior. Ad cundcm modum,(i contraria cmnia m tbo 
raccfinr^zequalisintoto corpore tcmpcries ui^ 
gcat, id cft , fi humidiorcs & fr^idiorcs umu€ihz 
corpcwis partcs fint, thorax quidcm angi^ftus ^ & 
glabcr cm ♦ Sicuti ctiam totum corpus pilis oudu» 
Cuas ucro titoUis & alba,capilli lbbrufl,pofiilibi3 
in iuucntutc, hi in feoc^flutc non cafucfcusit, tyim^ 
dic^ ftatim &^aui, & fegncSjaddcctiaei paruis 
uenis^ac mininie coiiipiciais,& adipoC fiuntidciii 
neruis,mulculilc^ imbecilliSj&anubuSjparum tx 
ade dcliiiiatjs,& bk£$, At uhi iiaria partium tcrfl^ 
pcries cft ^ cx mm earym prononciarc dc toto cot^ 
porc non licet Jed adeundse fingulas fiint : cftiman 

ino^quo cerebiumsacrcHquarum per (c unaquc^ 
leorfom fit. Aicp ha^ c quidcmcx funiftionius no 
fi:€nda*Cum nec manuum contredatfoe , ncc ocu 
iorum infpedionc jnucnifle tcmpcrkm corumfit, 
Simul autem pcnfitandus^, & conimenttum ea par 
mm affedus eft,quarum omnlum cxtrema cft cu 
tisi4^cmnoftrare^6e,quseuticptemp€rata cft 

L fubiecfla- 

fcbic^larum partium naturam prodi t*Quatiqp nc€ 

in ca fimpliciter loqucnri omniu.Sed duntaxat ea^* 

m^qxx imdl habcnt oiti tempeiic ♦ At in bs qua? 

fcsb urfa &'lubmeridie(uotlods, quonia corporu 

quse i altero &nt,C3lor in altu a circu ndaiite extriuj? 

fecus & okencefrigore efi: fugatus./\keroru in cu 

t€m,ab€Jctremo calorc attradus prodfjt ,nonlicet 

ex €0 affcdu,qiii in cute cernit ,intemaru partiaila 

rum remperies clare difcemi^Quippe corporis tc 

pcries air^*onibus,i]s quas a temperie receflcrut, 

lequalis ui&ur,ext€rnis fcibcet, iutemifcp panibus 

ad eundem iembdu non habcntibus » Gallis enim 

8C Germanis,& omni Thracio, ac Scithicogcneri 

fr^ida^humidacp cuas eft Jdeoq? euam mollis,aI* 

hsijbc pilis nuda* Qmnis uero naturalis his calor in 

uiicera una cum fingiiine confugit, ubi dum agita 

tur , SC premitur 6^ Teniet , iracundi , audaces , & 

praedpitis coniifi) reddiintur»Ediiopibus uero dC 

Arabibus ,omnibus dcnique ijs,quiad meridii* 

cm incolunt, natura cutis ex ambicntis aeftu SC na 

turali calore foras adlo, ufta, dura , ficca , & nigra 

redditur»Totocorpore naturalis quidem caloris 

cxiguam optineiite portionem , Sed alieno , atq? 

ad&'to incaieicente. Qiippc id quoque ab Arifto 

telc in multis cft tradmim ♦ Eftque illi , fi alteri ulli 

attendcndum,acin(ingulis corporibus eftiman* 

dumfiionc &proprio,an afatitio calorc incafe^ 


ant,Qusc enjm putrcfcunt, onlnm adfantfo calore 
iunt calida^propTio fiigent ♦ Quf meridianam plav 

fam incolunt adfdtitio calorc iunt calidi , propfic 
igidiJam apudnos quoquc naturaliscaiorhic 
me eft uberior,gdlcititius maior ♦ Aeftate contra 
adfatitius inaioranaturalis niinor,Ommanan<^ 
haec definiat oporret,qui redletemperamenium 
zft cognnurus , Neqiie enim omnino ficutis nis* 
grior apparet , iam totus honio calidior eft ♦ Sed fi 
itaeil ,cartms omnibusfimili modo fe habentis^ 
bus^SiquidemiSaltcrin fok ueriatus diutius eft, 
Aker in umbrajilh' nigrior,huic aibidior cutis eric* 
Verumhoc adrotius temperamenti alterationem 
iiiliil fadt . Ipia nanque cutis iub fole diutius habii^ 
ta ficdor , in umbra , humidior euadet ♦ Non ta«^ 
men naroralis temperies, ucliocinoris, ueJ cor* 
dis yud alterius cuiufquam uifceris jltatim muss 
tabitur^Opmnum igitiir fuerit,ficuti prius ell 
dicfhim , cuiufque feorfum particulae temperatf 
menti notas comparafle* Verbi graria uentris» 
adijfiisbenc concoquit quod temperatus fiu 
Sinnon bene concoquit,intemperatus, /f nidoro* 
fos^uel fiimofos edir ru(Jus,quod igneus in eo ea:* 
lorfit^SinacidoSsimbccillus Sc infirmus » Simili 
modo,iiqui bubuJam,&omnia quae concoCtu 
difRcilia funt: concoquunt, quod eorum caior 
imodicus fJt ♦ Si quiha^c concoquere no ualet, ied 

L T) iaxatiles 

fejtatfe plSxhBc ral!aconcocjuunr,fnfsinniiis» ViV 

dcoduin autera his mrfiim,iium iiicda!iaiiiis,qui 
abtiridecotifluar^culpadufiiiodilymptonia oen^ 
fnculo acddat* Alijs enim ex apif e pituirajalijs fia 
iia €x icdnorc biliSyin uenmculym confiuit , RarG 
came hoccmiit &paudlIimiscoiituigare«.Arco* 
pliidbus a capite defluit pituira . Aic^ id aiaxirjie 
Rom^,aclods pedndehyniidis.C^cm Stquod 
raro acddir confyderaodiL Nihilcp proiaperfluo 
habenduni,aut oegligenduni* Siquidcmipleisidi, 
quibulaam pet^ piaiitoSs fiominibiis^irioliaoi 
camcii iiiu€simcu!o coliigi fiaoam hikm ^quamcS 
^ an£c Cibum aqjia liiao neepoto^euomcre dcbuiC? 
foi£ jfi quid dbomm pritis^ 11001^% giill^feit^ 
Sr! Iios coriiifBpi^mc^& caf^e dolcrct^sc^Cmn hos 
quldainsiaiMfaMiofbs elli cmJcmit* Qilc|iians 
rf~£ri£ io^ cog^fMJi^ iiioIcs,& cmJidi^&gb.br3., & 
aciipc»li,& iieris^cnuiaslfe pari confptauisj, pt^ 
tero emigt!€S^nec tc^idbos adm^^osn calidi* 
V di & qui bilcm mm^ uomumitt^qm tmma 8C 

f?^B^^ lMu%& mnlailoS, & nigii^ BCmi^i 

tw < Coliifoodihabifti EydeiBUS pyolbpbiis e^ 
m &d ioddli hcx: kOTf|:^ciilarlo qu^Qm^Bmto 
mim ideft^qii3eadcoi|K5mii diCMioj^mi po"^ 
fi.oct,c|iiaBi alidpl rimlkoniiB^^iioianrt-s^cx ^?ni^ 
ptoiBsreim difioBanii% inigtiopercafigirsiiir ,, cS 


parumintefl^unt mcaeumiflum,pcr quemsecur 
bilcminucntnculum cuomfr ^aliisgcminiim efle, 
alijs unicum, id quod in quadrupedum d&^tio^ 
nibus uidcrelicctt Acplumnum quidem unicus ss 
cft^n id tntrftinum quod pylori,id cft, exioss fun 
di ucnms , & iciuni mcdiura eft , infeitus . Gv^ci 
mcdiumid -y&sic^ tnipva-af , qiiafi quiddam c iientre 
cnanim uocanc^Vel fi geminus meaaisiit,inecpliy 
(m illam maiof inletieur ^ minor io fundum umtcis^ 
culi paulo fupra pyIoi:on*Inuciiic,icd tamc in pau# 
rum quibus eft maior^hisiniiaitrem quoddicno 
caj^mim bilis dfiindiciir. Quam Sc cuomanr ance 
csbos oportet, SC m(i id taciaiit^l^docur, C^iibus 
autem uniais dl ommno mearus jhis tots bfe co^ 
fluit in iduoum « (^anani ^itux ratione dignolce 
rc hos Uctint ^ Ncc^ cnim diflecandos effe uiuos 
cenlkspnmum mm totius corporis taiiperamcn 
to,uc!utipaulo fcpra eft propoiitum . Udnd e rjs 
quae infra exccmmitur.EudeBUS cnimbiliola me 
ra, pcrpemo per fedt cxcmicbai: utpote,qm mul 
tam coScgit bilem , oiius nWih luperiorcm uen<p 
tre pmjcnit^Rciiqiis^qiii fcSictt 8C pituftofo erant 
corpons kabitu,& himi uomdiant, his haudqua 
^crataiuus bilioliuC^ppccum dC mmimum fia 
ux bifis g^nercnt,& eius plurima portio in fupea 
nomn uentrcmpcnieiw€iii*Terdum no^ gcous 

L ii] ) inipfis 

m ipfis eft uacuaris ♦ Nam quibus in uentre bilio* 

t^id porri uirorem praes: 

fer t At cpsbus ex iocioore delc€iidic.jhisiiel plane 
femim. eftsuelomniiio laltem p3llidiim.Praeterea 
quibos i necriaio bilis ila gignitiir , qu3£ porr s co 
loremif.m£atiir3cleb€£omnmo his cibiis Biifft ^ non 
paois^osi foiHa caro.^liiBil€ iie ^'quid^fed ncceffa» 
iio aKqyid^c|uc5d his calidius {ust^nec^ id boni fuc* 
ci Qwibusautemexiociiioreinuentrem defiuxit, 
hk ilsua ea^pallida ue coomirur^eda fi boni iropr i« 
•iii!s£icerfiwc,quod Simpferuiit ► EtiaiB fiad (amf 
mumfakconcQ^mnJmo uero magis ipfis qui ad 
iinguefBCoiicoxefiint,llauaiiomuntut ♦ Atc^ etil 
iiiagis -his qui dim ius cibo abft inuerunt . Quae ue 
ro bilis pornim refert , i)s folis gigiiiicur in uentre,* 
qui utic^ coocoxerunt male * Quin etiam IbllidVu* 
6C inedia^liicci flaua^bilis plus acerult. Propterea 
quod plus eius fucd m iocinoregignunt^Sunt igK. 
lum haec certa iodicia,tum ad haec, quo ubi ficcum 
SdignepuenmcoHcalorem^couerfio ad bilioiiim 
ua ^ iitxatiles pifces coacoquemur.Cumiiexieci* 
11 ore bilis affluat , escomeltorum mutatione nul^ 
h feaiturafit concocfbonis dioerfitas» Atqp his qui 
d em difcemitur , quod non temperamenu, ied alto 
tim cuiufquamgratia prouenit* Ad eundem mo^ 


dum-fidefiucnsa capite muentrem pitulta acidt 

rudus caufi eft , conucnictiimili ratioe hic quoc^ 

a uctris pfoprioafiFcduhancdifcemerc^Equjeue 

ro & capitis dolores ex propria nediis intempe^s 

ric,anpropreriientris aliqua exaementa incidant 

difccmendr lam cerebrom ip£im cuiiis di tcmpe 

ramend , per fe eftim-are eft iaiios , ^ ex corpons 

toQiis afFeduJpfius autem per ie conf^dOTtio, e.K 

canitk» catarris, tiifB, diitiMadone , &ialioas' copia 

initur.Quippe quse onmia id fr^dius,humid5iif=? 

cp cfJe doceant * Atc^ b's amplius U ex kiii quali* 

betoccafione^hos dmenit affccfhis*At caluities 

ex£cdtate prouenic. Nigroru mk Bc frequenti^ pi 

loru prouentus, equalis inccrebromTspexanien^ 

ti nota eft.Ergoad hunc modutn de tcmpcramen^ 

tis ineunda nobis co^deratio eft » (^ancp {cHicet 


pronunciaredeoninibus.Quod utic^ nonulii fece 

runt,qui refimosJiiiidoSjaducos, ficcos eile dixc^ 

nit^Et quibus parui (unt ocuIificcos.Qu&iis ina* 

gni humidos, Ati^ dehoc quide parii iotercos co 

ucnit, Alij nanq^ corum^ qui fcilicethumidis parti 

ewlis oculos adnumerat^ubi cos maiores iiidet,i fjs 

copiofiorc^ ferebaE^noculos mo,ueru et^os ipffi 
ct rehquos o^ meatusapliorcs facftosaiiitjita n nui 


diratis idjCcd cabris indicium ef]&, Venim anibo a 
ucricate aberranc,uno modo , cocp comuni , quod 
unius particul» occafione de toto corpore pronu 
ciarefum aufi. Akero qdf formatrids in natura uii*» 
tutis,quaearcifexfaculias eft,& particulasfecundu 
animi mores effingit,panim memincrunt. De hac 
nanc^ Ari/loteles dubicauit^nunquid diuiniohs 
originis (it,atcp acaIido,riigidoJiumido,& (icco, 
res diuerfa,quo mihi mious rcifle facere uidentur, 
qui tam temere derebus maximis pronunciant,& 
ibiis qualiratibus formandarum parttum cauiam 
a(%nant»RatiQnabile enimeft,toec organa e(Ie, 
f ormatorem aliu. Sed &C citra tam arduas quarftio 
oes itnicnite licetsficut oftcndinius^huiiiidam,fic«* 

cam/Mgidain^calidamcp tempencm, irrrantigitur 
qiii propri]s indicijs negledis ^ad ea qu^ ionge po 
iita £ior, &C mBgridc qu^ftionifuemr,at€^ ad hunc 
ufc^ckem optimis philolbphonim d ibitata fimt 
coouertunrur.Ne^enimproptcrea quod pueri 
nafis magis funr refimis Jlorentcs sttaeemagts ad<» 
undSjidcirco rationabile eft refimos omnes humi 
dos cenfcre^aduncos ficcos JSed fieri poteftut fbr 
matricis uimitiis eiufmodi opus St, potius ^ tem* 
peramcnti^Quod fi tcmpeKMncnti cft no?a, at cer 
t€ etus quod in mh tantum habetur » non dus qdf 
in toto corpore nota fuerit»Quare fniftra illcFpra^ 
dicant , in ficcis natura tcmperamcntis nafum acuss 


tum,ocuIowS anos , «cmpora coITap!^ , Quod fcili^ 
cct in affedifcus ijs^quse corpora Hquaot , atcp (u^ 
pra ^ par eftjiiiatiiunt^li^ec cotingat • Sscpe nan<p 
ficaccidin^pe non ita , Sed uiderc licct totius coiy 
poris habituni,5(^ mollem, ^ pinguem, & aJbum^ 
& carnofum^cum tamen oculi funt parui,& na£is 
aaitus«Rur(us licctim^macilentum,£iigrum, & hir 
liitum^ubi magni funt oculi,& nafiis reiimus^prscs» 
ftat i^tmjiciuidc de folo agitur na(b, ut cx co rcii^ 
mo,humiditatem,exeo aduncoficcitatem conic^ 
<fles.Nec de totius animanns temperie ex his par:* 
ticulis pronuncies.ParimodooculQrum,& aiicri*' 
uscuiullibet partis proprium temperamentum 
ex proprfjs indicijs cftimare cft fetius ♦Ergo de 
touus corporis temperie non redleabuna qua# 
piam particulaiudicium iumimr^Cum fiue humo 
ris uincends,fiue caIoris,fiue ctiam amborum, ce^ 
fiosoculos indicium ftatu€reoportct,uticppro^ 
prijipibrum fic,non omtiium totius corporis par 
tium,tcmperamena documcntu erunt; Naj cnim 
fi dura 8c macra crurafiint , omnino ficcum cft to* 
uiis ccrporis temperammtum. AJij nancj afFatira 
camofi,6^ pingues,& aafli,& promtneniJ ucntre, 
& molles,& candidi etiam cumeiufmodi cruribus 
ccmuntur.Vcrum fitotius corporis tepcrics , pz^ 
riratione (ehabcat,ficciomninofiint> quibusma« 
crafimt crura.Humidi,quibus aa(Ia.prjcterea qui 

M . busacu:» 

busacutuseft nafiis , aut aduncus. Hi ficd,quibus 

refinius humidi. Ad cunde niodii de oculis,tempo 

nbusjcaiteris deni^ omnibus paruculis^iudfatn^ 

dum Quibus impar lemperamenium eii,nec om 

nium particularu idemjalienu a ratione cft,ex uni^ 

caDparticulae nacura,de omnibus (enteua ferrcPor 

f o cale quippiam plurimis eorum impofiiit, c5 no 

de honimum modo,fed eriam aliorum animalium 

touus corporis tepcrameto,ex indicijs, quae ki cu« 

totamumipedanfjiudicium ferrefuntauC. Necp 

cnimfi duracuuseft,neceflario ficciieftanimas» 

Sed fieri poteft ,ut tantnm cutis ficfit afFedla . Sed 

necfinigra ba(;c hirtaue eft.Similimodo,nec fimol 

lis haeCjdepilis ueeftr,hwnidum gl neceflitate totu 

eft anima!.Vaum fi per tomm acquabiliter eft at« 

temperatum, ratio eft , ut qualis fit cutis,talis fir 8d 

rdiquarumpanium miaquaeque«Sin inequaliter, 

non item.Quippe oftrearum totum corpus humi 

ditfimum eft,cutis ipfa ficciflSma.Eft enim t)s qua 

tegunC tefta^cuiufmodi cft nobis cutfs. Atc]ph^c 

iHis Gracce nomen o?^o(A«^/%<t enim nomihanfur 

omnia eiuffnodianimantia, propterea quod cutis 

ijs oftracoa.te(ke adfimilis Ja maiocoflrata^id eft 


&C camari» 8C cancri , cutem quidem habet ficcam, 

reliquamuniucrfiun temperiemhumidam Jmmo 

uero iUudipium humiditausincarne nonnunqua 


aiiimafibuscaufadt»quodficcani ,tcrmiatypors 
tionem naturahis uniucrfamdrcacutem xeponin 
Non dk jgiiur putandum, ncc quod cutis oftreis 
iHccacft, iSco carncquocp efle ficcam . Ncc quod 
h3Beprajhumida,mucco6qp eft,iani cutmiquocp 
lamexieip&d^noiciJEigotu i faispeccac^cpii c5 
mctarios dc tepcramctis nobis reliqucrut,tu quod 
id omitcut,qd' Hyppocratcsrcdlimmeadmonu:» 
it»(pc<flandudle exquibus , mquaemutatioesfui 
fa<flacFitcmnonraro,utpra:Jcns nota prioriistcpe 
ramcti (ir,no cius quod incorpore nuc habeat^ue^ 
lutiiiquisannosnatus (exagintadcnib piOioiir^no 
quodcaIidus& ficais nunciit,icdquodantetalis 
fuerit,confiftantautcm cipriusgenitipiii, Adcun 
demimodum, quo hcrb«e,quaetiere iimtenata^, 
nonunquam perfcuerat ajftate » Alijs enim ipado 
tibus (citicct pre nimia ficdtate pi!is,ali]s diuriilme 
pih' permanet utic^quinec qjceiKi teporis admo^ 
da ficcat,ct aprio usietehabuerut origine^ArborB 
ritu,quaru radices i terra ualcter coprchederiit. Ca 
ue^c ft queadmodumpilofiimuideas ,hucftati 
noncHi efietale.Sin ia dediriat,melanchoIicu cxiffi 
ma,Atfi(enexeft,noitcJiuntnan^ melacholica 

M ij tiinciis 

riindpit,nonfl:aiamcftpercxK9iis,iieruni bntus 
abiidc»qixtcalidu$ &I1CCUS eft,ceIentercm»Simo 
do eoni]n,quas propofita (unt,niefninimus • No 
iHico mdandiolicu5. Quippe cutis defltas, craflio 
rum exaementorum traniimmremoransii tem^ 
peramentis^quaecalida in fiimmo funt,combiiri 
ca cogitJta fit , ut tak ip nuncfic ejccremcntii , qd' 
pilos creat, quafe olim prooedente tempore in ua« 
fis (anguinis cft fiiturum^Tfihapc^it omiflaprioa; 
oribus(unt*Tumpraeterh2ccquodexnatura cx^ 
aementorum,indcfiniccde tcmpenmentis pro^ 
nunciant. Putant enfm pamcufar um tempefiem,(j 
mikm efle cum excrementoru natura« Id «ero u{cp 
quacp uerum oon eft* Sed fieri interim poteft , ut 
pimiDo(a cxamienta collgaiitur^cc lamen hum^ 
da & particula,ihinK> fr^idaommno: humida ues^ 
ro nonomtsinD* Qusppccyin Ucc^ixi quocj efle U 
ceat.Quod atitcmcis anpo&it , f adlc anin^duen^ 
tinar.Noncnim ncnmequod ex dbj,?iequaquam 
cx ipfo corpc«e noflxo^pituira fit, Quarc nihi! trd^ 
ti eft^liiibt isigeftosdhosCqtii humidifortafle m& 
tuKifint)non uicdt,iimifc ijs, ipHim quoqp ocac* 
mcntumcreet, N6eft^itarquodopiiiem,tanc# 
corpus ficcumeft^itidemexcfementumquocp efe 
fe iiccum*Ecenimfiqu{s ab £nitio ficciore, fr^idio 
recptcmperameto ftstimfuityisnon rrjcfanchoii^ 
cus cft,(cdutic^abcxcrem€ntis pimitoliiSeQuod 


fl exhabitus mutatione,fi:fgidus,ficai% eft reddii 
tus,nece(Iario hic taJis iam edam mclancholicus eft 
uerbigratia,Siquis antecalidus dC ficcus,ex fangui 
ne urendo plurima generauit atram bile ♦ Eft enira 
is pra^terquam quod ficcus eft & frigidus , ptoiii^ 
nus etiam melancholicus ♦ Sina principio frigidus 
Sc ficcus fuit ♦ Habstus quidecorporis e/ius dlhus^ 
mollis , depilis,uenis ,articulifc]^ paruin expreffis^ 
gracilis,& tangenti frigidus,animi3s uero mininie 
audax,& rimens,&r trtfHs^non tameo excrements 
huic melanchoHca iiint, In his igitur omnibtis pec^ 
cant plericp medicommex eo quodproprias no- 
tas re(puunt,atc^ ad ea qua^non perpetuOj fcd fre 
quenter acddunt 5 conuenunftir ♦ EiufHem mxsris 
occafione,&quod excalfacit, id eriam ticcareomni 
no putat, Ho€ enim ueluticoromdeiummac^ uni 
uerfl lermonis addi£0,{ecundum iam librum finire 
ftatui . Quippephlegmone obfeflas partes calida 
perfiindentes aqua , atcp ita uacuari ab ip hiin: ore 
cementcs,clar€ indicatum arbitrantur, ficcitateom 
nino calori fuccedere* Ncc^ id modo ubi cum (icci 
tateis,uerumetiamubi cum hum,oreeft coniun* 
<rtus . C^tenmi non eft ide ueluacuafle ab aliquo 
humorem,qui locis quibufdam fft diiperliis^ iiel ^ 
priam parbcufee alicuius temperiein iicdore xcddi^ 
difle,Siquidem inequalif qu.Tdam in his^quse pWe 
gmone labor snr part&us>intempcries ef l,fimilaf i^ 

M 0} bus 

bm fcilket corporibiis a proprio temperamento 

noadum amorls^fcdaflidueadhucin mutatione 

atc^alteradoneaeriatis^omnibus nimirum mter^ 

pofitis inter eas Ipaciolis jfluxionerefcrtis^QuaECU 

<^ igitur calida humidacp natura {unt,cum fic afFc^ 

^is adfnoucntur^ipfaquidem fiiperuacaneaquae 

rnedia fin-iilar iuin fpa cia occuparunt>euocam,Coi: 

pcra tamco ipfa tantum abeil^ut ficcer, ut etiam iU 

iis humorem adijciant, Ac ipla quidcm uerif as ita 

fehabet^Demooflratiotamen euidens diAsre;* 

qiiiritur, Verum eam aim& longiorem exifti^ 

mcm/^ ut huiclibro infeatur , & auditorem defy 

deretjqiil mediGamentonim facultatis fit non igna 

rus 5 iti prarfens diftero * Caetcrum ubi m tertio li^ 

brodeomoi temperanientorumgenere tradaue^ 

ro, ac deijssquarpotcftatecaiida/rigidajhumida, 

ficcscpXunt omnem methodum indicauero , mos 

integrumlibcllum (cribere detnequali intemperie 

decretii. Quippe fiabfolueturanobis 

iinmeria de temperamcntis 

difceptatio, ad medaids 

mcthodurn non parii 

adfcret commodi 

Galeni de teriiperamentis, Hionia Lmacro 
Anglo terprete, Librsfecundi, finis, 


ds , Thoma Linacro Anglo mterprctc 

, C quod cnergia^ fiuc acflu cali* 
i &ficcorum unuqtiodcy telecf 
le dicat, ud q<F furm habef eiuf 
modf qualitate,uel qd' uinat in 
eoidgenus qualitatum aliqua, 
uei quod ad cognatigeneris me 
dioaeaKquidjUel ad unumquodHbetanobis Gt 
coIlatum,priuscft traditum»Mbnfbratum prxi^ 
terea eft quemadmodum caquis agnofcere exat? 
<flc pofGt ♦ Reliquum vR^ut dcijs,qu3c ca!ia pote^ 
ffate funt difleramus ,fi tamen prius explicuen^sf 
mus,quid ipfopotcftatis nomincf^nificetur.Eft 
autcm brcuis cius & fadllima, & clara explicatio ' 
Quippe quod quale dicitur,tale nondum eft , fed 
p5ttale e(Ie,idhoccfle porcftatc dicimusplomic 
uerbi gratia,qui mo natus fuit,f t5nalc,& aue uofatl 
le,& cane uenacicu,& cquu cdercScihcct qd^eoru 
unu qqodcp futurii omnino efl, fi nihil idextrirrfe 
cus ipediat,noc ceu ia id fe,appcnaccs* Vii arbitror 
ha?c eflcporeftate, no a<fhi didmus,pafedu n5cp 
cft, ac ia praefens , ipia cncrgia, (rue quod acSu eft» 
Quod ucro potcftatc eft,imperfe(flum,8^ adhui 
(uturumiatqucutfiat quidcmfd cjuoddicitur^uc^ 


luti hdb'^^iontsmm adhuc CiMficns* Siqiiidem 
mc mfans r atioiialis jam €ft,(ed iBlk lucurss^Ncc 
qui mod o sedims efi: canis^ucnacor^qui fcilicet ad* 
hiic iion iiideatsfel quod uenari qucat fi ad iuftum 
piTueuiat incremenaim^fe noniinatiir , Acmaxia 
mc quidcm ^pprie Iblaea potcllatc eilcdicimus, 
in quibus natura ipia fliopce impetu ad abfolutio* 
nemuemt. Vticp fi nihil eiextriniecus iinpedimen» 
£o&«Pra:terea quaamcp fientiumCutficdicam) 
coatinentes maieria! funt. Necrefertcontinentes, 
an conueniaitcs ^ an proprias dicas . Quippe cum 
ex omnibus iudicerur^quodpropinquu cll^quod 
c^ iicc alia intcrcedente mutatione iic diatur, uerbi 
grada mm. fangufnem poteftate camem appellaj?, 
quoniani friiiiimam mutasionem ad camis genera* 
doneoi r equfrat. At non qui m uentriculo habetur 
coococlus cibus,contines camis materia eft . Sed 
prius fit fanguis oportet Jongius etiam abfunt jma 
za Sc panis * Qiiippe quse ut caro fiant , certas liii 
mutationes requirant . Csererum hsec quoqj om* 
nia,poteftatc caro dicuntur*Etiam antehxc ignis , 
aer,aqua,8< tcrra. Etiam horumipforum commu* 
nis materia, Atque ha:c quidem omnia ma^is, mi* 
nusue abufiueloqucntibus nobis dicunt .Primus 
autem modus eoru,quar poteftate efle aliquid dU 
cuntur,maxime eft ^priusProximus huic eft eo* 
rum,quaj (unt propiiiqia matcria » ucluti C fumif 


dam fKhalationem fianioismcfle, aut balitum acre 
dixcrisDicirurpoteftatteilej & miodc! quod €3C 
acddens:! did£ur,cft oc aducrlb poUtum^m H c^m 
iiqinsiuuenis infngidalauaticncm»corpus dus 
€x acddctiti^Bonc^ propria poteftaiecalcfaccrc di 
cat«Ergo toc modis caani potcllatecalida, fr^idaj 
hiinii^>&C ficca diGentur.Dubi5abitur qiiocp non 
abfordc^cor CaftoreurOjUel Euphorbiums ud Py 
mhrum^ucl Striiihion,ti€l Nitruoi^uclMifyi cab* 
^cSk dicamus»Rurfus laducarn^uel dcuram, ud 
mandragorani^isc! falamandrsrn/ael papauer » fri* 
gida, Vtriim ne (uh pfdcdi^is mm modls compre 
hendanair, aii alia quapiam raf ionc dicantur 5 quae 
di(ffcsnondumljc*BirumennEncp tt£m^BC fieuo 
& olcum^ BC- pixjcalida potcftatclur^s quod uric^ 
cncigia calida cclerrime fi^iit* Etcnim cclcnime in^ 
flammantur, Prseterea cum corp©r&us noftfjs ad 
moucntjca mansfcfte calcfadunt* At CaldriSs Nik 
fy jSynapi, Nimim, Acoron, Meon , Coftus , dC 
Pyrcthrum cum nobis liint admota , caU da uidcn 
tur« Alia m3gts,alia miniis,Non tame &n£ idonca, 
quae in fiammam uertantur * An igitur feipfos fal* 
lunt,qui id (blum eftimaot* Nunquid aliquano fa 
dlein Hammam tranirnutentur , (;pios uticp no &« 
Scd an non ucr tantur in prunam cftimare opoite^ 
bat« Cumfit pruna ignis non mihus , ^ flamma« 
Hoctamcn diiarimine^quod acrc,uclacrco quopi* 

N amin 

mn in Igne niotaeo Bama,tCiTa , ml rerifeare aliqiia 

accenfa,fit pruna* Atq^ hadenus quide cofaitire fe 

cu lenno oninino uidet. Siquide uideimir medica 

oientaea^qa^ ubi igne atngerltaccedunt^nos quo 

c^ excaifacere, nifi fi quod ^ppter crafiitieintra cor 

pus no facile affiifnitur. Dmeretur eni de ip lauus 

iiilibris demedicameritoru yiribus.Qu^cuncp tn 

rnediomenta noftrum corpus excalfaccre oident» 

ca prompte uatunt in igne* At quo ^iair inquiut 

tangentibus no lentiunt: calida,hoe haud fcio cur di 

cant ; Nam fi energiaJanK^ calid5,efle prsedidorii 

cjuidcg diceremus^pfe^rco oiirari liceret,quomodo 

taiigetibjs no appareant calida * Nuncquod pot 

fint facile calida efle^iddrco ea poteftate talia uoca* 

mus Jtaqi nihil mirijfieos^qui fe tsgut nodu akh 

ciatit» Veluti emm nec ignis ipfe auget,priusc|5 ui^ 

c^ea ab eo iigoa lint mtjtata, quod aliquo tcfnporls 

fbaiio oio fit Jta nec animantiu csdor amedicanien 

tis , nifi illa prius ab ipfo fint mutata ♦ Quf ppc alio 

genere caleficas qui ab igne ud (ble itepefcit. AKo 

is qui a praediAorij quouis medicam€toru*Illa na« 

cp SL^u funt calida,medicameta ncqua^, Itac^ ncc 

calefacerenos ualenr prius^adu talia fiat At qcf 

adu talia (int,id a nobis acdpiunt , ueluti ficd cala* 

mi ab igne ♦ Itaiiero &C I^na ex fua quidem natu* 

ra frigida (untuuincrfa ♦ Sed qua^ ficdora (unt, & 

graciiia,€afacile mutantur in ignem» Quapbumi 


diora fijnt Sc craff%fpacio ^ent jnaiore,NiliiI igi^ 
tur rniri eft,fi medicamcnta quoque priiniini qui;*= 
dem in parua & tenuia fraiigi poftiilant^fccondo 
loco , ut tempore aliquo taiiictfi niuiisiiOs€or|3ori 
noftro quo calida fiant fmt adiunda* Tu Mcro 
fiieancc coniminutajnecprios calefada^ calida 
tamen fkn cmCcs , quid%nilicet5qi.!odpofefta^ 
te calidum dicimus, paruin mihi mmiiniffe iii* 
deris* Sic cniraea exploras, tanquam energia 
finc caIida*Sed neciUudmirum, fiquo recalfacii? 
ant^calcfian' ipia prius pofiiilent^Cum id?m fie 
rf cematur , & in Ignorum exemplo ♦ Quippe 
haec uanefeentem , morientemque flammam tiim 
leruant , tiim uero augent dum ab hac , ipfa prius 
calefiunt . Non cft ^itur alienum, calorern » qui 
in anirnantibus habetur , eiuimodi medicameo*^ 
tis quafi ^mento quodam uti quemadmodum 
ignis 1^0* Quippc id ita quoque fieri cemiif 
mus«Siuero perfrigcrato corpori corum quod^ 
uis quantumuis diligenter comminutum infper:? 
gas,pror(usnoneaIefit,Proindequac refrigeratac 
partes (unt , eas ciufinodi medicamenris plurimii 
perfricamuSjUnacalorempedricando excirantes, 
una rarum,quod prius fr^ore ftut de(um,redden 
tcs ♦ Quo fdlicet tu introrius pharmacu penetret, 
tum naturali animantiscalori coniuncflum mute** 
tur,ac calefiaCr Quippecuius JG particula quajpiam 

N f) uelmi^ 

ucl fnmima,caIoreni energia condpiat, hunc ddnn 
dcintotum propter cotinuitacem porngat,perin 
dc ac ii es parua fcintiUa tedam fiimmo tenus accen 
das^Siquidem hanc iiniuerfam facile depafcitur^ni 
hi!o amplius {cintillam requirens * Ac quidquid 
quidem poteftate calidum eft,huic nondum inna 
turalliacalidum frigidopraepoHetjfedin propms: 
quo cftjUt pra^poUeat^ adeo ut breucm opcm quo 
uincat extrinfecus reqo!rat*Hanc illi modo fri<flio 
abunde pr^ftare poteft , modo uelignis , udcor^ 
poris alicuius natura calidicontadus ♦ Noneft hi 
tur tam arduum rationemreddere , quid cauia: ui, 
cur alia prorinus ut corpus noftnim cont^crc,re^ 
caltacerc id poiliot. Afiapoft lotigiiisid cffioerc 
fpaciufn. Quippe ex i^quae ^ni appropinquatat* 
Alia ftatim accenduntur^uduti clychmum , & tt* 
nuis tcda,& pix,&^ llccus calamu&. Alia nidi diutii^ 
us fiintadmotajnon uincuntur ,Ccutuiride lignu» 
lOud potius definiamus,cu!us udcp demonftratio 
cum dc naturalibus potett]s agemus,tradetur ♦ Ex 
hypothefi nunc quocp propofitorum caufa^eo ua 
temur^quatuor nimirum dicentes totiuscorporis 
proprias facultates efle» Vnam idoneorum m^ti 
cem.alteram eomm omnium rctcntricem , tcrnam 
alteratricem,8^ q\iartam quae alieni Ct (^egatrix, 
eafdemcpfacultates efFeduseflc toriusin quouis 


doS^i<^oJtmidOy8cficcointa: fcmixtk didmiiSi 
Vbi ^itur hxc unaqua?!ibet earum, <q|uas fn k ha? 
hct qualitatumjCorpus quod fibi adiiiouetur ^ de^ 
mutat,nec ipiam hoc cafu tota fua lubftantiacxifti 
mandum eft ^cresOcc quod ab ipia mutatur pot 
fc ei affimilari.Quare ne un^ nutriet ^ quod ita mu 
caaim eii^id qd^ le mutaoin At ii i!la .niyixi' , id eft 
tota (ua (ubftantia operetur, uticg tum fibi affimii 
bitid quod mutatuTj tum ab co nutrieiur * Ncquc 
enim aliud nutritio eft, quam adfimilado pcrfcd:a# 
Quoniam autem hoc dmnitum cft, inde rur&s in 
dpiendum ♦ Omne animal conueoiente fibi nuttit 
aIiniento:conuenieos aisrmi cuicp alimentumcft^ 
qulcquid affimilad corporl qiiod nutnfur^potcfti 
Oportet igicur tod ooOTentis fubfkmuh^^aim to«s 
fanutntinatura communio aliqua, firailitudoque 
fit:pror(us hic quoqpnonparuo €sceflus,defe^ 
AtJq^ (iibfiftente in ipfis difeimibr,cutn alia mz^ 
gis conientientia,Cm^iac^ finr , afia minus ♦Proin^ 
dc etiam aJia conficiendi opereualentiore , ac diu** 
turniore^alia rainorc^c breuiore cgit : auium caro 
ininorc,(uilIa maiorc^bubula eda hac maiore. Vinu 
uero ut afllmiletur opus deiyderat minimu, Quo 
fit,ut tum nutriatjtum roboret celerrime . Porro id 
quocpinconcoquendi infhiimcntis ^uentriculo* 
iodnorc,& ucnis, pror(iis aliquadiutraxcrit opor 
tct^Quibus (cdicct prafparatum , nutrirc corpus ia 

IN ii) queat 

qiieat Ante y ero ^ in his fit dcmutatum ficri non 

potcftjUtsaiimalis corpori fit nutrinicniiirn, Ne fi 

pcr totu dicm^ac nodcm cxtrinfccus fiipcr corpus 

ilt impofiiiini^Multocp minus panis, ud beta » ucl 

mazaj foris impofita outnat* At qua? quidem adfiss 


niamedicamenta,eftporro&horum natura du^s 

pfex. Quippeuelcuiuimodifunt adiumpta^eiut 

modi eiiam permanentia, uincut, corpuC^ mutar^ 

ad eum modum,quo id cibos,atc^ h^c prorfus tu 

uenenofa^tumnatura animalis corrupcridamedi:* 

camenta funt , uel mutationis imtium ab animalis 

corpore confecuta,deinceps iam putre(ait,ac cor 

rumpunair^deindecorpus quoc^ unacorrumput 

acputrefacinnt * Sunt autem hasc quocpnoxia ue^ 

nena * Eft his ctiam amplius tertia medicamcnio*^ 

rum ipecies,eorum nimirum,qiKE corpus. recal&^ 

dtint quidem/nali tame nihil adfcriit ♦ Eft SC quar 

ta eorii ipecies^qua: BC agunt 3C paduntur aliquid; 

fed fpatio uincuntur,planec^ adiimifantur, Acddit. 

porro his,ut tam meclicamenta fint,^ nutrimenta* 

Nihii aijt miri eft, (i exiguu colecuta mometum,ali 

qua maxima a priore namra mutatione habet.Cer^ 

liuntur enim duimodi multa in his , quae cxtra nos 

funtSiquide in ea My fia,qua? eft ACac pars , do* 

mus hac aliquandoratione conflagrauit.Eratpro* 

jedu colambinum ftcrcus, cui iam putri 8C excalfa. 


(flojaciiapomticclentj , &tangetttibus admodum 
calido in propinquo feneftra nierat,ita ut iam con 
tingcreteius Lgna^qua^largenuperillita reiinafue 
rantMedia igitur a^ftate^cum fol plurimus inddi 
(et,accedit tiire(ina,tu ligna.Hinc *ajt & for es quas 
da ali2e,qua? prope fuerant5& feneflra^ nuper ec0 
reCnaiIli£e,faciIeigne conceperatjatqp ad teduulc^ 
fummiferat. Vbi aiit excepta femel a te<flo eft flams 
ma,celeriter in totam domum eft graflata* Hcc ^ 
hitxor modo aiunt & Archimedem hofiium trire 
mes urentibus fpeculis incendiflePorro iuccendi^ 
tur his prompteJbna,ftupa,e!ychniu/erula. Qiiic 
quid denic^ fimiliter his ficcum/animcp efhFlam 
ma edunt,& lapides attriti,atcp hoc magis , fi quis 
flilphureillos illeuerit. Eiufmodi erat medicametu 
Medeae.Quippe quod quibus eft illitii,oiaubi in 
id indditjCafor accendit* Coftat id ex fuJphure , 8C 
humido bitumine* lam illud ceu re rairandaquida 
oftentauit JExtinxit lucema^ac rurfus muro admos* 
uens,accendit. Alter lapidi ea admouit. Fuerat aut 
tii murus,tu lapis fulphure cotacfii» Quod ubi de# 
prehenfum eft^defijt miru uideri, quod oftentaba 
tur.Ergo omniaid genusmedicamia,pcrfed:e,atcp 
ad conlumma tione calida adhuc no /iint^aptiffima 
tamen ut calida fiant» Atc^ iddrco poteftate cali^? 
da dicuntur ♦ Ac de ijs quidcm nuUa eft dubitatio* 
Sed neccur lunii bibitu ualditer corpus calefadat* 


Monftratum enim (upra paiio cft^ id non uticp ul 

calidufnrncdicarnentumelniixiout conueniefisnu 

tdimtmi calefacere asMmai.Tao^ emni ignis ido# 

neum a!f memum ^ ^oe ip&m augcc , ica quicquicl 

corpofum iiacura calidof um propriuni &C mtm^ 

k cft nutrimc8ituiTi,id ca lemper noo Iblym i©fao«s 

rabit/ed cdaiii iiiUtuni conioi calofmi augcbit* Ai 

cyid quidem omsiis mitrMcoti commun^ eff^ 

Aus ciL Vioo pmcr c^eia proprium , ac luiiell 

mucatiois celcrilas Jsa mic^^yt tedse^elychni), flup 

pie,pids Jam ueso ab ^nis c^cemplo non digf efli: 

admon^imis nirfiiro de I^nis uiridjbuSjqu;^ ipla 

quocp ^nis nytdmentumlynt* Cmmum mnR^ 

ttn 5 mt continuo ^ eocp feposuiiier© igni ibic Ag^ . 


feedlla cll & pa^ia,corf ompcnd^ quocj cius pc 

ffkolum alFenific* Sk profcdo & io aafealibiis d 

b4<^ uti pf orfus adlimikoair^S^corpus nuniant 


rcm mme in praefeid uidentuf *Cxtcfy m calefa^ 

dufitlii quoqp lpado<»iiO!2"fcafS»acrcIiqoi dbl , fi fc 

mel ut coipiis tiutrian£,iin£ coniecuti» Omne cnim 

nutrimcntuni^qu«^enus nutriiiieiituiTi clt ^ «tnimsi^ 

lis calorcm augct, At fi deuor ctur quidem ut nuiri 

mcntum, nec tamen fupcrctur ^ id mt quod Hyp^ 

pocrates dix!t,nomincquidem nutrimentum,te 

autem minimc ♦ Quippe cum triferiam nutrimen* 

- - tumdica? 

tum dicatur,ficut ipfc doaiit bis iicrbis. Nutrimcn 
tumcftj&quodnutrit, & quod uduti nutrifnenjs 
tiim eft,& quod futurumnutrimctum cft, quod 
uticp iam nutrit,& corporiadiungitur^ncc ampli^s 
us futurum cft^d propric nutrimentum nomina* 
tur,Idcm uero & corpus qd" nutrit-»€xcalfacit , qc? 
rcliquorum ncutrum facic ♦ Quod falicetproprie 
nutrimcnta non (int«Scd altcrum corum ueluu nu^ 
trimcntum, altcrum tale futurum . Proindencc ui^ 
num ipfiim (cmpcr animal calefedt^sequc^ut ncc 
oleum flammam accendit, tamctfi aptiilimum cft 
ignis nutrimentu.Immo fi imbcciDe & exiguc fiam 
macjConfcrtim multumoleum infundas , iuffoca* 
bis ea^proriuiqp extingucs , pouus^ augcbis ♦ Sic 
igitur & uinum^ubi plus bibitur,^ ut uinci pofSt, 
tantum abeft,u t animal calefaciat,ut etiam frigidio 
ra uida ggnat. Quippc apoplexia?,& paraplcgi^, 
&quae Graece caros,& comata uocamus , 8c ncrss 
uonimrciblutio,& comidales conuu]iiones9& ten 
taruVmmodicum luni potumcomitantur « Quoru 
unumquodc]^ frigidum eft uidii , gencratim enim 
qu«cunc]p ailurapta oi corpus,ut nutrimentum ca 
lefadunt,haec interim fr^efacerc deprehendas» 
Eque (cilicct, ut flammam ab eadcm materia , non 
augeri modo,ucru etiam aliquando cxiir^ui* Aic^ 
haec quidcm omnia,tum i]s,quae de clcmcds,tu rp 
qua^de tcmpcramcntis fimtprodita ccnfcnriunt. 

O niudfor^ 

Ilud foitaffi diflbnai^ uidebitur,qiiod ex ijs ^ qujs 

III numm entum comedontur^aliqua cun impofita, 

hac erodrij:,atq? exulceraLSicut finap!, mundL, aliia^ 

cepe. Veru hoc quocp cu pofitis a principio hypo 

thefibus concordat,Etenimpfoptcrea,qd* tufTuii 

uentre conco<fta, tii in uenis in fanguine uer& tm^ 

tant,alt€raniur<:^,prseterea qd*uno bco no pemia 

iicr : fcd in raoltas partes diui&,undequaqi feruii:, 

adde t& qd' nb folu mvkis hccis mi&eot^^fed etis 

cibisxoquibos fiimuntur,adharcqd^ celeriter to^ 

tu & concodio, & pardu leparatio perfidt ^ ita ut 

quod coueniens in tis eft adfimilet ,quod lupcrua 

caneura & acre^per aluum urinas , Bl fudore excer 

naitpropterhaecio^piaqd:' forisimpofim exuls» 

cerat^id comeftu no exulcerat«Quauis fi od unum 

quodHbet homm accederet,lat!S elletadeaqu^ 

foris fiint integra foaianda^uerbi cau& mutatio 

ipla . Si nanque non maneat finapi, quale extrinfe 

cus fiiit^cum eft adfumptum ,manifefl:um eft-, 

nec ulm eius manere ccnfeodum.Quodfi tum dt^ 

rimuntur eius partes , tum purgantur > multo uti<^ 

magis fic ccnfcndum ♦ lam latis erat quod nec cos» 

dem lod manet»Cum nec cirea cutim aliquid sffi^ 

cerepolTe uideatur , nifi diutius immoretur * Sed 

nec mixtio ip& cum multis cibis parum montKnti 

habet»Sienimid citraalium cibumlblu affumas, 

facile intelliges quantum mokftiae, & rofionis 


ucntrkulo fft alfatumm . Quin etiam,fi plurimo 
duici admixtum focco, curi id imponas, cjuam 
nihil adferat incommoditCum iguur prapdi<fto*= 
nim luiumquodlibet per {e,lam prohiberepoft 
fit,quom!nusfinap2, quod fori^ lacitjidmi fa? 
cere mtus poflit . niulto arbf tror magis., ubi muk 
ta fimui coierint* Nam & coqucndo altcramr, 
& expurgatur , & cumrnultis alijs mifcctur ,& 
uarie diftribuittir,&ih omneni partem krmr^ 
iKC in ulla moratur» Qiiod autem fi aaiiKoni*! 
arn fuani feruaiet^lnccnia quoqucomii^pexuli? 
ce?aret,exi]S,qu3e (ponte acddunt ulceribu5, 
inteliigas^G^nitur enim no raro alijs es uidoio 
cibo i aitjsex quaptam in ip(o corpore corrupte** 
la, 8^putredine,uidoiiis fiiccus , quam cacochy* 
mian uocant* lis aliquando interiorum quoque 
aliquid exulceratur ♦ Magna tamen ex parte,cu;? 
tis quoniam in hanc excrementaqu^in haj>itum 
corporis coUiguntur , natura expellit , mulcis & afi^ 
fiduis ulceribus afficitur * Qjippe cancri pha* 
gedene,herpetes crodentes,caibuncuii, Sc qui 
cbyromia, & Celephia uocantur , Tnilkque aljse 
ulcerum generationes,ab duifnodi cacochymi^ 
nafcuntur. Necp igitur talium quic^ eft dubican* 
dum.Sed neocur medicamentorum ncnnuKa , c5 
liihil nos extrifecus ofFenduc , intro aflumpta mag 

O i) numafTcrant 

numaffaranr malum, Aliquanirfusintro aflum^ 
pta^nomiun^ Icdant, nonnun^ confoat . AUqua 
non folum ihtto a(Iumpta/ed euam exuinfecus ap 
plicitaoffendant, Qjippc ut (cmcl dicam, nihil fo 
riSstntufcp parem agendi facultatem habet. Ncque 
cnsm au? uipere uenenum^aut rabidi canis fpuma, 
aut alpidis ufros^qusE camen(iexirin(ecus corpori 
occurrant,offendere creduntur,parem uim habet, 
uel (ols cuti applkita^ uel intro affiimpta^Sed nec il 
lud efl: mirandumjii ca?terorum medicamcntomm 
niSydd profimdumnon peruenit . Nec^ entm nci» 
cefie eft^ut omnia parem habeant uim. Quod fi cx 
r)s,quae inero fumuntur nonpauca,certo tempore, 
& certa quanotate,& inmixtura , cum cacteris acce 
pca,conferu!it.lntempe(liue autem & largius, nec 
cum alfis admixta laedunt , ne id quidem dubitatio 
nem uliam difputationi p3riat.Siquidem id tum cfa 
bis jtum ^nf ,tum uero omnibus ^ ut Ec dicam quae 
corpori occurmnt,accidere (blet « Nam & medio:» 
cri nobis flamma nonnun^ opus eft:,eafcp u(i,p!u 
rimum cx ea iuuamur.Cum tamen immodica fla^ 
manos urat. Ad eunckmmodum 8C (ri^de potio 
quxmediocris efl^confcrt qua? immodica eft,ma 
ximam affm lelione.Quid igitur miri cft,e(Ie me* 
dicamen aliquod,adeo calidu poteftate,ut (! mul^ 
tom eius fumatur , ac in uaaium corpus inferatur, 
aodat prorfiiS;,uratcp,Sin€xiguum fit, & cum ijs, 


quae uchementiamdus remittant , coufndium^no 
modo nihil incomodi affcnrejuerum etiara calcfa^^ 
dendo iuuarc^Lacrimamcnim, ud Cyrcnaica, uel 
medicam,ucl particham ipfam quidcm per fc,cicra 
incomodum {umcre noneft» At fi omruno cx^ua, 
uelcum alijs intemperic congruentc fit iiimpra, ma 
gnopcre conducit . Atc^ adhuc qusdern modum , 
quaecun^corpus excalfadut,ubimutationis prin 
cipium in ipfo ficut diAum prius ejf!: accepere , rc* 
caifacereiilud font apta-Quas uero refrigerantsUelu 
ti papaucris £uccus , haec a noftro corpore , ne ml 
paulum quidem demutatur,{ed ipfum ftarim uin^ 
cunt,ac mutat,etiamli calefacla prius dederis . Eft 
cnim eorum natura frigida, quemadmodumaqua* 
Quare illudre(fie Ariftotcli,ficut alia moltaj didu 
rum corporum,qua?dam efle taKa per le,quaedam 
ex accidcnti . Sicut aquaper fe quidem fr^da eft, 
ex accidentiuero aliquando calida:uerum acquiCti 
dusduscalor breui perit^naturalisfrigiditas ma« 
net.Tan^ igitur calida aqua flammap inicdla ^eam 
extinguit^Sicmeconium fi id quantumuiscalefa* 
dhim dederis , Sc calorem animalis perfrigerabis, 
&C neds per iculum afferes * Omnia igitur id genus 
medicameta^fi cxiguc Smt data,& una cum i)s,quaE 
uehemendarafrigoris eorum caftigareualeant,no 
nonnucpulum aliqucm corporibus noftris pra^* 

O iij ftanr. 

flaiirjqueniadniodum ioopere dc mzikmnmtk 

diccsiir* Siqmkin medicaraaiid quod CantharisJ 

dasr€C!pit,hydends prodeft.Tameifi caiiinaris 

ip&jUeficaraommno exukerat» Verii iibi pet ea, 

qu^ admiiceciir caftigara eftjac corpori^quod pki 

rlmo humom gxmMur^mm offertur , illumpcr uti 

ms cxpellitMaxime i^tm eft attedendy in om.-iU 

bus,qiia? poteftase c«ilida/rigida ue diamt^ns ne 

CK oatuira eorimijqu^ nuirire corpus poflunt ^ ao 

ciiiCnodi, qu^oigumiialcerationis i-no.meiiiu.iiia 

&5deindc fecuiidum propria natura alterata,cors» 

piss ipfiim! aliquo modo afficiimt . Tert io lcco m 

iiullo padoab eo quicqi akerctSi n3c^ ex nutrien 

liu hnt genere^liquide uincant^Csdefaciut* Si no ui 

cant ,r€ frigerat, Sin ex i]s fijnt quae exiguu quippia 

alccsat^oio cdlehciut*Si uero es ijs^qiise omiiio nd 

alcerant ^maximc refiigerant At tendere aute,ut di 

clu eft ^ maximeoportet,ac difcemere , quge pcr 

k funt,ab jis^quscper acddens ^ no in calidis &C ki 

gi^s modo ,(cd nihilo cciam (etius in (kcis 3c hum 

midisuQuippe aliqua taliu jCum ficca fiibftantiam 

iint (ortita,ubi largo calore iiintliquata,huniidatis 

phantafiam praebent , ueluti ^sfic ferrum . Qu ap 

dam per fe humida, ubi in fyncero frigore fcnt mo 

rata ^apparent ficca ficut glacies, Minime igitur de 

ijs omnibus faciendum ^foluto , & Cne ulla cxces* 

psione iudicium eft, ficut in ^pehoribus monui^ 


mu5 .Scclcum co,iitqucmadmoclirmierein calo^ 
re - firigoreque habeant^conf^^dcf cn£ur.Siqukkni 
Q ex^uo prardita calore, nihilominus hiimida ctr 
nmitur , talsa ede cx propria natura ium ceo&nda, 
tametficu copiofb calorefint ficca.QusEueroucl 
fiib feruend calore fiuiint,uel fiib puro rigore /unt 
concreta,nehoriim quidenialtera perfe hurnidn^ 
akei-a per & ficca iunt exillimaiida.Brgo m adhunc 
snodum diiliriguere coueiiie£,qii^ pcr feiunt , ab 
ijs,qu3eper accidetis, tii ad hajc ip& (pe^ftanobus, 
eoriim qn^ poteftate cahda , frigidajhuiiiiday liCi? 
ca ue iunt ^ iudkkim fadendmD . Non enim acl id 
quod iecuiidum accidens efl , refpsciedbus^fed ad 
id,qood lecursdum le eft,idquod poteftate efir, 
iudicari debebirPorro comunis in omnibuSaUoas 
cp iudicadi ratloeft^alteratioriiscelcritas^Atcuni 
calidum,frigidum^hujnidum,& ficcum dicantor, 
c//.st«;f(w^5quodfal!cet alia peridjquod exupei-af, 
aJia quodeaoi qualita^em a qua lunt denorainara^ 
liimmahabeam,in utrScucp honimprompteucr 
titur,dequo agitur iudidum ^tdt poteftate fue^ 
rit Oleum nanque calidum poteftateeftsnimirum 
quod fiamma facile fiat*Eodem modo refina-jbitu 
men,& pix» Vinum auteni,quod fadleiiaclan^ 
guis * Pari modo mel , & caro, Sc hc , Atquc heec 
quidem totis ipforum alteratis fubftantijs, nu^ 
trimenta fe altreantiu Hmu Qua^ uero unaqualibet 

qtialitate,alterantiir ac inutantur , ca medicamenta 

cantum (unt.Medicamenta itidcm (unr,& quae nul 

ia ftibdandxfyi^ mutaca patte, fed tota icruata inte 

gra^corpus ipfum afficiunt.Carterumgrauia dC 

nacura^ animaiis corrurnpentia. Vndc & totum eo 

rumgenus dekterion &peftilens didreor.Quip 

peh^cnonminus gencre deleteria (um dicenda^ 

quod ubi plane minima cKhibentur^nuiiam inferut 

(enfibilem noxam . Sicnacp ntq^ ignis ip& calidus 

fit,neq^ nixfrigida» Nam horu quocp fi quid pror 

liis exiguum eft^nullumeuides incorporibus no^ 

ftris exdtataffedum*Quippe cetefima unius icin 

iillaepars,eft quidemomninogenercjgnis. Caetc 

rum adeo nos non urat excalfadatue^ut corpori in 

cidens ^ne fenfum quidcm ullum (ui exdtet, Ad eu^ 

demmodumfrigidse afperginis centeiimaportio 

no modo nihil offendat.aut tcfngetet , (ed nec (en 

fum fiiiullumpraebeat» Nequa^ igiturfic iudican 

da ddeteria (unt.Immo touus naturse (uae cotrarie^ 

tate.Porro iudicabit contrarietas,ex ea qua? tnedia 

intercedit mutatione.In elementis ueibs gratia , ncs» 

c^ aqua mutari poteft in igne , necp ignis in aqira: 

fcd ambo in uao i unraq»» At illa in altenitru 

nuUo modo.Ergo corines,& (me medio eft aquas 

mutado in aere,itcmcp ignis.Non continens,ignis 

&aqu9s in alteruorumrhsec igitur inter (e contraria 

pugnantia^ (unt Nou di(&njliraaone papaue^ 

ris (uccus» 

tis (ucais, hominis corpcfi pr orfus eft contmius 
m quod in id quic^ ^gere ne una quide m qualJsa* 
tc podicmulto mtms tora fiia fubftiua poifit * At 
cp unum quidem deleteriom genus dulrnodi eft, 
alterum cil €orum,qu«c exnoftro calore momcn:^ 
tum aliquod mutatiois accipiunr^ar deinde in muU 
tifanas afteratiocs ueraunur, quibus cosrumpi m 
airam noftram accidit, Emlmodi enim omnk dek 
teriagenereliint,etiamfipropter adgukaiem no^ 
nun^ nihil quod (enriatur eSFidant. Ac quar coip© 
ris naturam rodunt putrefedunt , SC liquant , meri 
to poteftatecahda nominantur» Contra qu^ rcfri^ 
gerant»&(en(iim auferunt«torporemcp notabilem 
affcrunt^igfda^Et priora quidcm nibil non tmo^ 
fii conibnum,nec ipfa pau, nec in corporibus no^ 
(bds cfRcere uidenrur,Siquidem calfdo corporiap 
plicita,& mutationis momemij aliquod hinc acfe^ 
pta,pactim eorum ad liimmam caiiditatem,parrim 
proueniunt ad putrcdinem^Iureigitur pro affc<flu 
qux ip(a confecuta fiint, etiam corpus animalis af 
ficiunt» At quae corpus tametfi ipfa calida funt^ap;; 
plicata»tamen re&igerant»non paruam dubitarione 
aSerunt*utrius potius natura? fint . Nam C energia 
(cmdcalida (unt rcddita, cur anima! no calefacut^ 
Sin nondum funt calefa(fla,quomodo apparent ca 
hda . Soluetur dubitario fi diftinguatur , quod per 
fe frigidum eft^ab co quod eft ex accidenti . ha uti 

P Ariftoteks 

Ariftoteles clocuKPerit nancp cdtmcr eoru,qiije 

ex accidentf {uni cal!da,acquifi£itsus affcdus Jta ut 

m prlorersi naturj^ fnx ftatu facilereuemnturPor 

r<5 in ^pplicmdk t)s nobis , qua* natura quide limt 

frigidajftdpa accf dcns calfda , duo hxc contingr 

t€ eft neccae,i!t SC acqu ifinrius eoruin calor p eresj 

af,Sd^propria eorum tenipcries, a noftra nihil im^ 

mutata, frigida perftet* Et quid miriii papaoctis 

fuccus,mandragora,uel ciaita , uc! fmilm aliquid; 

i^uis exhibeantur caiefacla,paiilopoft euadunt: 

friggdaC^Cum idem pat!amiij%ptilaiia,&lac,&far^ 

dC panis, Vbi in inibeGllooi ttcntrem demiffa , ab 

€D non fuperantur,Euonioiimr mim no raro abu^ 

dc fiigida»Et quod ris mafus eft,quodcp Hyppo^s 

crares notauit , pituita 2p6 qiiamuis iam iuccus fit,, 

arcp €x chis in uentre iam conccdis nata^nihilomi 

nus fngida tangentibus foicitur , neq? id oiodo du 

in uentfe conintit,ied poit«^a uems ipSis, purgan 
tfs^cuiufpiam medicamenthu^^eft detrada^Tamet 
6 enim ^ tenadiSma eft^ac per uim ducitur , atta^ 
men neipfa quidemtraci^s uiolentia calefieri poas 
teft.Quid^itiir miri, fi etil papauais fiiccus, qd' 
naturx noft^tam contrarium medicamentu eft, 
^ celerrie r efr3geret,etia i calefadus Bt exhibitusf 
refrigerct autem unalecum &corpusC' Qwppc 
scquifidtiu calore np feruatj propterea quod natu^ 
ta &ig{dus eft ♦ At quia eius fubftantia a nobis no 


aStcxa^* hmno potius nos altcrat s &' mutat , jcfcii co 
neca nobis quic^ rccipiC caioris ^ Sc pro ftia i)3tii^ 
ra nos afficit» Itaq^ cum frigidus natura fk , 6c ncs 
itdc^ refrigerat.Nihil igitur in didione noftra dh 
dubitatiois reiiquum, En?miiero quoc! horum oni 
nmni, quac Irigidaper natura liiot ^ quicquid plus 
liifto cakfeccns, ex propria id natura r€ccdat,pr:]ri* 
jter^ quo<l nullani dubicatioiieni habec edam pr^ 
ddis ^ nobis,affert telliiTionium * Sicut cnini ula^ 
mandra ad cerr um u(c^ terminuni ab igni nihil pa=? 
titur , uritur autem, fi longiore Ipaao jgni fjt admo 
b«Sic BC mandragora , 8c cicuia ^ &c puUiuni , bre^* 
ui (pmo igmadmota , propriomadhuc ccmpcra?' 
nientum(eruant,largius aucem excakfada^ilhco 
cominipuntur;necquic^ efticere,qyasprius po^ 
terantjualem» Ac taliuin quidem onmiuni xiatura^ 
homioibus maxime eft comrana.Sanenaturamcu 
dico .uniucrlam fubftadajac tep erie^quse cx primis 
cbnetis c6flac,|jgnificOsC3lidc%lrigido3 hujdo^iic* 
coJ:orum ucro,quai; celerrihienutriui: couenietif? 
fima. Rcliqua oTa media inter lisec fum , quorii s^a 
magis , alia minus agcre , ac pm a corpore noHro 
poflunt^Siquidem cal^oreum,6Cp!per agerc mi- 
gis in corpus nofhu ^ pati-sbeo iiafgnt* Viiiu^ Sf 
nid j8<C pti[ana,pati magisj c^ agerc * Ergo hacc oia 
tum agum circa corpus aliquid,timi uero patiunts 
Qinnino enina uibl duo corDora inter Q comniiila, 

P i| aiiqul 

aliquammulto temporepugnant,ceftantcp dealtc 

rando^utruncp eomm tutti agere , tum pati eft neis 

cefle. Fortafle aut & fi no multo tepore id fiat, atta 

mcagitetilidqd^uicit^iidqcPuidtrucru ita exfgu 

um,ut (enfum effugiat* Necjt enim (i acutifSmo rer 

ro molliHimam caeram toto die ac node incidas/ie 

ri poteft,ur nonfiat,manifefteobtufius. Ita nimiru 

illud comode dici uidetur. Afliduo Hlifu durum ca 

uat undula (axum, Quippe ita quocp fadum cerni 

tur.Csererum uno , aut aftero i(flu nihil adhuc cui« 

des uidcrein talibus licet^Ex quo facfhim arbitror, 

ut quaedam ab admods fibi,nihi] prorfus pati» opi 

nati nonnulli fint * Et cedendum quidem cft ita lo^ 

qu€ntibus*Saepe uero nobis quoq^ ipfis ita plerun 

cp loqucndum cft, nifi ficubi ad ultimum cxamen« 

difputatibnem perdudmus^qucmadmodu in prae 

fenaa facimus»Sic igitur &i« ircSti^id eft, nunquam 

deficientis affwfHonis dogma , ijs uticp qui (blum 

id eftimant,ualentc dcmonftrationc no caret . No 

cft tamen eius ad priuatas fingulatim obcundas a^t 

dioes uflus ufiis^Si na<^ adeo cx^ui afFedus fint, 

quibus affidue affidmur, ut nulli adKotii fcnfibik, 

& manifeftum incommodum afferant , facile pro 

Fc<flo contemnendi (unt,atcp ci qui afFedus id gc^s 

nus nuOos effe didt nonjrepugnadum. Perindc^ 

tur habet«& in i^,quaf nutriik,prope dixcrim om 

nibus.Qufppe quae ipfa quocp in corporc homiV 


nfe aliquicl facmne . Scd ncc fcnfjbilc aJiqufJproi* 
(us,ncc cuidens , diuturnatamen corum cxhibitio, 
magnopcrc altcrat,mutat<^ iam corpora.Sut cnim 
&qua?primo ftatimufujfnanircftam altcratione 
fuam indiccnt»uc!utila^uca,qu3c cos, quibus ucn* 
tcr apftuat,manifc/lc rcfrigcrat» A tc^ a dti uindicat 
quibusrcfrigcratum cft,manifcftcl€dit. Condu* 
cit ucro &C ad ibmnu non parUjnccp id aJia rationc 
ulla ^ quod frigido temp»cramcto &humido cft* 
Vcru ficcft humida,& frigida ad homincm,& alia 
qusc nutrtri (unt apta , ficut uiridia ligna ad igncrm 
Quarerauonabilitcr cibi, id genus uttumc^ prae* 
ftanr,& quod ueluu medicamcnta corpus noftiu 
affidunt,& qd' nutriunt.Toto quide concoqucn* 
di (ui tcmpore,utmedicamaita. Vbiiam nutrium 
ac prorius fiint adfimilata, ut quac nihil in nos agat» 
/cd tiattiralcm calorc augcant , ceu prius eft didu, 
Quippcidomniumqua? nutriant communc cft* 
Ncc eft quod mircmur,(t modo exempli uiridium 
lignonim non (umus immcmorcs,efIe aliqua, quae 
priu5^ad(imilcntur,& nutriant,dum adhuccon^ 
coquuntur,refngcrent,cum adfimilata (untyaciam 
nutnunt.calcfadant Jtacp ulus quoq talium omniu 
duplcx medicis fuppcnt, tiim ut ciborum ^um ut 
medicamentorum.Fac mncp mutata fit alicui opri 
ma uenm*cufitempcries,ad calidiorcm Js profedo 
^ diu laAucam concoquit^rcfrigerabitur , &mc^ 

P iij diocnV 

diocritatcm temperainenJi aflcqiicturiVbiuero 

CK ea imi mmtm cB^^nfiti caloris &bftantiam aii^ 

gebstin co igimv uel iiiaxfmc lefe I allac uidcruriu 

nioruiTimcdicoru uulgus,quodigiiofac in nobis 

aKqiia?.ido qyandtatcm calorlsinecndi^aMquando 

fobftantiani elus augcrl « Tom quod utroq? gtne^ 

re uetetes calidiiis faduinaiiinialdicant.QL^ando 

ciiaiTi calidius fir^fiise cabrem cius ititcdas ,fiae (ub 

ftaotiasin qua pdma confift!t,inaug€a§, fingetiiqs 

cxi]s,qoxm animalis corpore condsientur, fangui 

mm efle per fe caiidum,aut fi magis placet flauam 

}3iieni,rcliquaoniii!a oc accidenci cfle calida. Vcsqs 

quod huius aliquam habeanrpartciB^nunquidne 

ccire efit aiiiinai bifaria calidius clle^iielquod pliis 

calidorum {uccorum (it ibrtltum .iid qiiod calidios 

res cos habear^ ante. Mihi pkncirauidctur , Ad 

cundem moduni arbitror^ &' frioidiuscritbifiin% 

uctquod plurcs iliifuccf euerintfr^idi fticcisCeupl 

tuita5& nigra bilis^uel quodeoruni osroiiiim .mois 

do non mutato fok qoalitas fitinicta, An igitur mi 

riquicquameft,ficorpus quoad coocoquir^qoi 

frigidus naturacibus eft^ficut porcolaca*, &'Iadti^ 

ca^ frigidac qualitatis non parum pordpiat, pcrco*' 

«flo auierri,ac iam in banum languinem uer Ib: cMi^ 

di Kicd acce(lione,caIidius ^ prius euadac* Atqu I 

11 niliilhorii, aut ciuSnodieft , <pod fieri ncqueat 

autaiam jidhuc miru^cfiiant iam obftrcper c,qui 


finum mniie.mcp cibiim,tiifn mttimeiMiytxm mc^ 
dtcamenti iifuni corpon pra^ftare neganc , Tan^ 
eniiiil! ommno non percoquer€tiir,pefpctuo ma^ 
neret medicsmmtujk. m la cR pei codujambo cf 
ficit* Pone cnimprorfiis no concoqaati4rla<!^uca, 
uc! ii mauis iucciis ipfiuSjqn is fi liberalius fumat Ji 
imilc in fiole cu papaueris (ucco effedu habet.Nu* 
qiud hoccaluiii€cticamentuc^erit,necaIiud qiii^ 
quaC Nerno arbicror de ea rc dubitet. Ergo habef 
omnio laduca &mcd{cameti facultate. Af ueroha 
bcbat et nucrimentquippe que perfepe niitrfjr. Am 
bas jgit faculf ates fimul in (e coimetjnB tame fimili 
tef ambas oftendit» Veriim ubi plus egit in homii* 
ne^cp Gt pafla jmedieamenti potius indicat facuka^ 
tem,ybi pafli plus ejR: ^^it,nutrimed.Nec miru 
uil5 e{t,C !a<fhjcae tu agere^tum pati contingft,qua 
do enS quocj? , ceu paulo ante diximus, no fblu in 
cetrni sgere, fcd etia ab ea pati ^cddit , Caeteru eo 
qiiod multo amplius eft quod agit, ^ quodpatit, 
altertirnlatet, At lidiiriflimum fii ferru admoue^ 
as^cot^a magis pari^cp agere tibi uidebitur ♦ Tam^ 
€cfi' :^git aiiqiiid mn} quoc^.Sed negligftur prse exs 
guitate eiixs uis Jfa^ deomnibus prorfus dhisjlss 
liid promiodare non dubitamus,qd^non folu 3 no 
ftis corporibus pati, fed etiam agere aJiquid m ea 
pofIiint.Iam ucro 8rdequibuiyam,qua* plane ici^ 
Ecet ^ luculenteruidemiis agere^quod no tantu ci 

bi fint. 

bifint,(edemm mcAcamenta.Etla^fluca quidem 
tam cibus,^ medicamentum frigidum ejR:* Eruca 
lam cibus,q? medicamentum calidum. Quod fi ca 
ftoreum quoqi fpatioconcoquitur,erit id qiiocp fi 
mu!nutrimentum,fimul medicamaitum ca!idum« 
Ad cudem modu finapi & p iper . Ex herbis quo* 
que anerhum, Sc ruta, 5^ origanum , & pulegium, 
&calamynthe,& thymbra, SC thymum , Qyippe 
baec omnia^tum cibi , tum medicameta calida Itsnt, 
prius enim ^ in fanguinem (unt mutata,dum icihV 
cct adhuc concoquuntur»mcdicam€ta.Mutata ues^ 
ro in fanguineit^non uticp iam medicamcnta , (ed 
nutrimcnta.Secunda nimirum nutrimed (ijgnifica^ 
tione^qua id fignificatur^quod nondum eft alime 
tum,(cd uduti aiim€tum*Ergo ficut dc laduca pau 
lo fupra (ecimus^cum duos ucntres , alterum iufto 
nunc quocj^ pro contemplandis fjs^quae potcflate 
calida (unt,proponamus cofdem uentres*Ergo eu 
qui fidgidior iufto cft,quoad in co cotinetur» ac co 
coquuntur omnes id genus herbae calefadunt,atc]p 
ad tcmperamentiaequalitatcmreuocant^profunt^ 
que lu medicameta* Alterum uero qui calidus eft , 
anflammabunt^acmagnoperefaedet^. Atqp has qui 
dem alteradones qualitatc (ua inducent.Nam om* 
nino pa:co<fb,& mutata , ac in fiuf^ninem bonum 
iamuer(a,naturalisin animalicaloris (ubftatitiam 


aiigebuntjnonquaiitaternintenclentJn totu mim 
fcLiefrjgidus^fiue calidus potellaredbus fif, poRe 
a^integuinem conuerliis efj:,naturalem calore 
(imibteraugebit* Quoadautl ad&nguinis fonri^ 
tendit,nec dum plane finguiseft rcdditus,refr^etf 
rat,excalfacit uc animaJ medfcamenti rlai^Sane em 
nis hacc difoptatio ab uno principio pcdet « Qyo 
mzgis fer uandum id , mcmoriac^ teneridum per^ 
petuo cfl ♦ Cuilibet corpori propnetatcm cjuan;^ 
dam temperamenti elle, qu3C huic quidem natur«e 
fit con&nrkns ^ ab hac ucr o (it diflentienii ♦ Tum S 
quodconueniens fibieft^inftiamnaruram cranl^ 
inutet,eo paclo caloris fui fubftantiam augere» Sin 
ipfiim (k mutatum, duorum alterum illi continge*= 
re^uel ut calorem quandam cooquirat , itdc^ fl id a 
quo mutatur,calefadf,uel proprium calorem amie 
tat^fi id non cakfacit.Liquet igitur ex iis,quod eiuf 
modi omnia,ex eonim funt numero, quac rclata ad 
aJiquid dicanturC' Cum adpropdetarcm mutanns 
nacarx,qiiicquid a(lumiiur,uel nutrimenti, ue! me 
dicameri^uel urriufcp rationem fortiatur , uerbi gra 
tia.Cicuta^fturnotiutrimentum eftjhomini medi*» 
cimentum.Rurfiis coturnid,ueratrum nutrimens* 
ttim eftjiominibus medicamen . Si quidem coair 
nicum temperies affimilare fibi ueratrum poteft, 
qiiod hominum temperies non poteft, Ergo ma** 
hefeftum hnn arbitror fa(flum,quod iudiclufrf^cius 

quod f cfpcAu noftncaliduin, frigidum, humidii, 

& Gcaiin didfur, non cx !]S , qua? extrinfecus funt 

pofita*Scd €K f}s,quibus ipfi[afficimur,ccrtuni exa 

<flumc^ fieripodic^Aicpid tan^primum:,acma:» 

mne fit fp€<^mdu * Dcinde il rcs exigit,etiam qd* 

ab es:teniis petitur ♦ Nam fi eiudens ad (cnticndu^ 

dl danis & adhibiti nxdicamoiti afFecfkiSjhuic ttU 

quisnotis oomfcus pofthabitis acdendum^Sio 

confufiiSs6£ obfcurus^auc er iam mixtus , aut ullam 

oranino dubitarioncm fit e xhibcs , rum uticp ad ex 

ferna omnia cofcren£cs,de eo iudicandum . Ac ne 

quc honim quidem ad ea,qu2e longius abfimt, (ed 

quse ab ipQt qud^itsz rci Itjbllantia uint dcfumpta» 

Verbigratia.Si olcum calidum eft^no id inde fpc* 

^abitur, quod glutinoliim , aut pallidum , aut kuc 

eftrled quod/acilc mflamniatur * !d oani^ crat M 

calidum poteftate elle^qtiod celenK? in aiergia ca 

lidimi oiutatur* Ad cundem modum & in corpo^s 

fibus noftris ,11011 uciqi id expendendunisan cral^ 

iaruin pmtium,aue tcnuium,aut humidum, aut le^ 

ye,autglu£inofum,autpaI!idum:lcd an calefaciai 

admotum * Equc uero nec an dulcc &,an aluum dc 

ticiat,aii fanguinem,fi indiHctUTy faciat in mifflonc 

fluxilon . Qusppe ha?c quocp fijperuacua fum , cu 

eftimarc liceat,an calefaciat cum admouctiir^rgo 

fi notabiliter id,ualentercp faccret,quemadmodum 

piper,utique claru i6 proculque dubio cflct.Nuix 


cum minlinc ualentct, id praeftct , merito in qu3:> 
ftioneuenit^Multoueromagisdero&ceo, &C acc 
to dubitatur a medids , atque ambigitur calida ne 
hiEc,anrrigidapoteflate fint, Agendum igiturid 
eft, ut in omnibus , quie poteftate calida , frigida^ 
humida,Gcca ue dicuntur, cxa<flas aliquas , claiafc^ 
diicrccioncs inueniamus,Sicutante decncrgiaJic 
didis fccimus. Porro indpiendum arbitror ab iis, 
quse euidentirrima fiint, Quandoin ijs exercitas' 
tus, fadle confequetur ca , qua? minus funt euidcn 
tia ♦ Ergo ftatim ut corpori hoc , uel illud medica;^ 
menmm , dbus ue admouetur , expcrs efto omnis 
acquifititi]caIoris,8^frigoris . Quamcnim in fupe 
rioribus determinationem iniuimus ,cumficca&! 
humida corpora dignoicendapropofijimus,cai^ 
dem nobis nunc quocp in rjs,quse potcftate caJida 
frigidacp fiint,non minus er it utilis, Nam fitie pOi? 
tcftatcfrigidum,cum id applicas,calefacias,fiueca 
f idum rcfirigcrcSjCorpus primo occurfu , quaHta* 
tis acquifit2e,non cius , qua? propria eft rei admo^ 
tXyCenfii afficictur, Vt ergo adniot^ rei uera , fytu 
ccrac^ natura cxploreair , tepidum quoad fieri ma 
ximc potcft,efto,nec ulla cxtrinfeais notabile ake 
rauonc ualcnas caIoris,frigoris ue cepmt* Ac pria 
quidc admoti medicamcti pra*paratio talis efto» 
Applicet aut cu cius ui cxploras,no cuilibet corpo 
risaffeclui,fed fipliciflimOyCt quoad fieri maxic po 

CLtj tcft. 

teil^UJmmo» At (i fmimi quidem caioris affedioni 

ad:notum fdgods feiiflimcsdtet .ent profedlofic 

fnpidu . Pari modo (i kigido affedui apphcatum, 

cdUdum (htim apparcatjid quocp ent caIidum.Sm 

iid calide affectiomcalidum^uellrigide frigidum 

lendatur , non eft quod lioc calidura > ilUid rngidu 

ommno pwnundsfiJBA o^iim aliquaiido fumnii ca 

loris affeclus,quem medsocriter Irjgidum medica 

mm adeo ooo alteratyUt relr^crando,denfaiidoq? 

iufifiinymextriniecus corpus^calorem imro conclu 

dar jac difilari ueter Jndec|i affedlum magis accen# 

dat .1 ia yero erfi quod fi igtdo affe&ii admouetur^ 

nullam afferat calorcm,uidaidLim eft » Num id cu 

fic aliquid mediocnter calidum,nihil egit in affedlu 

qui kimnii idiguir caloris. Ergo nec {i£,admoti me 

dicaminisexpforadamscft^nec fiex acddcntiali^ 

quid efficsar, non per lc , ludicabis autem quod ck 

acddentLaJiquidfecitjtum exaffccflu ipfo,tum tem 

porc.Ex affeiftu^fi is fimplex eft,8£ unus, Ar a te^s 

pore deterniinabitur iudidum adhunc modim 

Quod protinus ut admotum cft , calefaccre, uel re 

fr^erare manifefte cernitur,id uticp & cx le,& pr r 

le cale fuerit* Quod cemporeidfadt, fortaffe ex ali 

quo accidcnti fiuc eft acf^um, ueluti iuueni quadra* 

ti corporis.Tctano a?ftatemedia laboranti/r^ida 

liberalitcr affufa aloris repcrcuffum fadt . Geteru 

quodaquafrigidaperlenoa ca!efadat,cx primo 


^iuslDCCurlu patet.Senfuitinan€pinuehit frigoriSt 
Pra?tereacutim quoad ci aflFunditur/rigeFacif^Tu 
calorein nec ifi omni corpore;, nec dum afl undiiur 
inuehit ♦ Imnio in iuuene , quadrati corporis ^ & 
aeftate media, & poil:^ a profundendo e(l cef&^ 
tum ♦ Sicut igitur frigida quihus incidit , haee illico 
perfrigerat^iiueanimata corpora funt ^ fiue ucn ani 
matajuue calida^fiue fiigida. , ita fi quod cffet tem j^ 
puSjUel corporis naturajUel aflfedus uilus , iii quo 
frj^idajprimo flatim occurfu caloris fenfum ioue* 
heret^iure queri pofIet,caiefacer e ne^an frigefacere 
per le nata eflet^Nunc cum orama tum aniniata, m 
inanimata prorinus , Sc perpetuo frigefieri ab ea 
cernamus^Quibus autcm in(itus calor , ueluti fons 
quidam ignis in uifceribus efl:, his occurrens reper 
cuflum aliquando caloris fadt^raiionabik arbitror 
€x acddenti,non pcr /e talia caiefacere»Sed nec latet 
quaratione illud accidat.Siquidem f^ipata, clufac^ 
corporis fumma facie , repercufliis , refractufc^ (it 
caloris eius , qui a profundo afcendit , qui<^ fimul 
propter diffiatus inopiaeft aceruatus ♦ Simui pro:^ 
pter frigidi circumftantis uiolentiam in altumre 
cedii^Simul ex fiicds iftliic habitis nutritur» Quip 
pe ubicolIed:us,nutritufcp calor ad (umma corpo 
tis uiolentius ruit , fit qiridem caloris repercuflus ^ 
iudidum uero , acdocumentum , quod frigidum 
haudqua^perfe calorem auxit* Na per fequidc 

Q_ ifj cutitn 

dkus caiom ad profundum (unt colccud , Ruiiiss 
liomm.denfiratem quidem difflatus prohibirio. 
Redittim uero ad intcriora,corKodiOj confumma 
tioc^.qiii ifthic funt (ticconim, cft adfecuta . Haru 
u:ro dffilatus probibitio,caIoris collsgendi , (iicco 
mm conccKfi:io,doldemgcncradi fuit occafioPor 
rohonim ummc^ natiui, caloris S^quitur audio» 
Ergo iiiterccdeocibus, & medijs utrikp , frigida in 
anim^is €orpore,ca!oris aliquado excitat incf emc 
tUjper ft non<^*Scd no minus cafor , eft quado es 
acddenri perfrigerat* VticK interccdente uacuatio;? 
da fluxioiie phlegmone confiftat, propria quidcm 
cius curatio^uaojatio fiipeniacui cft» Vacuatioi au 
teparriculir,quaeperphlegmoiKii cxcalfafe eft, 
0!o tiiccedft rerr^eratio» Brgo cu duplcx i i}s, quae 
phleumonelaborat pardcuIiSjaffedus fit,unus qui 
deinquacitate, cxfuperuacuinaturaemodum ese 
unm iyndatia,alrer in qualicate,qul o caloris fpe 
cratuf rarione, fequieur prioris coru curarione , eriS 
poftcrioris airario:fiuntcp ex ocddend,qu?e uacu 
aitscafoins matcria?rcmedia,& tnflammariois paf 
rtcularu refr^eratoriaucrgo fu hsec difcemere opcar 
f et,tu id agere^ur pro modo fmnplids affedKis , etia 
utriu mcdicatiicti inueniat modus,nerb!gratia fi ca 
fiqus 1 fummo affejf^us ftt^ fr^idu quoq? i (ummo 


mf dicametirparcf .Sin affcdhis a (umo paiilu recr 
dat,mcdicam€tim quocp a fumo paulu dcdinet* Si 
p!us a iumo calorcablit aftcif^us, ad portione abfit 
a(iimofr!gorcmedicamc«Quippe Ciaufpicatus a 
taIicoie(5b.iracxamceoru Gs/acilius ^priajCuiuG 
cp menias uim « Ad iumacns in os iimphd alTedu 
caiido^quoddicp adhibim medicamc^prio itati oc 
curfu fr^oris fenau itulir^id fr^idu poieftatc c « Ac 
multo ^t^io magiSjC poft prima cxhibitionl talc 
pcrpetuo manct ♦ Quodfi calidii affr^ftu ^prdis fa» 
nct^igidu id exncccflitatc fuerit , Adhibldu ucr o 
cft cu exploiat oio tcpidu , ut prius teftati iuiiius* 
\/bi ia cognim e talc efTe, deinde curatiois ca pctit, 
rc<flius fngidu fumit*NiC Cmcdicame fumi ftt fri^ 
goris^morbus in fummo caloris non flt» Atcp hsec 
quidc diffuliys,tu in opere dcm&iicmmitk^m cu 
raodi mr iliodo tradent» Ad prxfais iHudlalr e no^ 
iiide oportct ♦ Si quod calido ^ & fimplici affec tui 
adhibitum medicamentum,tu protinys^tii toto de 
inceps tepore fr^oris,fenfums ac facflioris tolleran 
tiae,iuuametic^ W}OfantiafFert,id fr^idum ncceOa 
rio eft^Tametfiin alijs nonu^ uide^cdsdu^ De^? 
prchcndctur eniminiliis fidiligcnter erspiorct , no 
uricp per fe,fed ex acddentiexcalfiicerc • Cum pcr 
fe didraus^uelprimum^uelnullo intcrcedcnteme^ 
dio,omnibus dufinodi ucrbis Jdem poteftate fig 
nificamus, In quibus omntus le(florcm , in opere 

Q; iii] dciue 

demedkanwus propri]s e5£emplis exardtabirnus, 
Niinc reccnfcis i)s , qua: ante iam dixi , propcfico 
Ixbro cotnQdum imponere I inem tcntabo.Cu nao 
qu€CdMdiim corpus mukifdxiRmdic^Pdr ^mm 8C 
quod liimmarn eiofiisodi habet in fe qiialiiareni ^ 
ip£im kifjcct clemcntuiTs^Et quod propter eiufmo 
di quduiztmit poHeoKiii, nomen eft fordtum * Ad 
lia^c quod colhtum ad aliud didtur^uelad id quod 
mcdiocre ciu(c!em iicgeoeris/icl quicquid fors tUis 
kritSic & quod poteftatc calidum eft, eiiergia u€fi 
ro nondum dici poteft^intelligi , probaricp miiltis 
modis oportet ♦ Quo uticp minus rede fiquid no 
ftatim inflammaturjid aliqui ne ut ad nos quidein 
eOc caiidum poteftate putant»Nam fiue facile coii 
coqtiitur , 5^ cito nutrit , erit ut ad nos calidum» Si 
ue admodum uduti medicamcntum , calefadt, 
erit id quoque , ut ad hominem calidum . Sicnis* 
mirum 8C per {ir^;ulas animalis {pecics , ipfijm 
poteftat€caIidum , fiaeeft,ut mcdicamentum, G.^ 
ue ut nutrimentum,adiiludtantumanimaI,coIla^ 
tum didtur»Eft enim ex ijs,quae ad aliquid referun 
tur^quicqiud poteftate aliquid dicitur.Quare 
&C probatio ^quas propria eft^melior uriquecft, 
cpquscab cxtenio petitur^Propria uero eft una 
in fingulis,utic;^ fi celeritcrtalefieri appareat, quale 
id efle potcftate diximus ♦ Eft cnim poteftate ig* 
'nfs , quicquid celcricer in igncm uertiturtpoteftatc 

uero cali* 

Fo. Ixy. 

UfTo calidam ^ut ad homirx eftg ex ipeciebus eo* 
i:uoi,qu-^€X€oquod mipfis prscpoHec, diciintur^ 
qtiidqdd boniini applicatu, naturalis dus calons 
uel qiialitatcrrj aiiget, uel fubftatia. Eadcm mihi & 
de alf js ccaicri dida ueli, qu^coq? ialicct potefts 
tefiigida^uel ficca, uel huniida dicutur. Qiiu hsec 
quocg parti ueluti ad ipia eletneta,parti ueiufi ad 
ea, qusFJ ex prsepollente iunt nomfnata.tu intelligi, 
tii ekplorari^tu doceri coueniatPatet uero eu quo Taflu eu qui 
c^quiiudicat^radu, oninis acquifititi] caforis 8c iudicatur^ (it, 
fiigorisexpertcinefiedebere/icutidemedacame ois acquifti^ 
tisipiispriuseil: did:on-u ti^ calons Uei 

&igons exper 
De temperamentis finis ti debere eilc, 

Thoma Linacro An 

De insequali intemperie ,Thoma 
Linaao Angio interpr ete 

^Nacqualis intemperies alias in 
toto animalis corpore fit^uelu 
ti in ea hydropis {pecie, qua 
grseci avao-a^tt uDi .ant* Bc fe^ 
brib^ jjs^quas i^em hepiaias 
appeliant^fere c^ reliquis om 
R nibus 

nibtfs, exc£ptis,quas HctfHcas tiominat. Inddtt 

aut€m 5«^ in miaquaiibet parte,quum ea uel intoa 


cro ue^eft afifeda^Huc pertinet SC qui Blephas A> 

citur^8c Pliagedena, &C Herpes» Veru hsec oia cu 

fiuxione conflftunt. Abfcp aute materiae affluxu, 

{oUs partiuiti qualitatibus aliquatenus alteradiSjin 

^uaies intemperies fiunt jVtiq^refrigeratis i^s, 

autdeuftis,aut immodiceexercitatis,aut feriatis, 

aut aliquid id gm^ pafHs Jam ex medicametfs fjs, 

qua^ foris corpori occurrunt,inaequaiis intemperi 

es ^igiiimr^dum f d ud fr^efit, uei cale fit, vel llc* 

catur^udhume^um redditur* Quippe hx fim^ 

plices iiiteperies (unt, vcluti in ijs , qua? de tcmpe 

rametis icripfimus, cft moftratum» Compofitae 

cxi^salijequatuor(unt,quucorpus uel calefit fc 

mul&ficcatur,uelcalcfit fimul& humccflatjUel 

refrigerat fimu!& ficccfcit, ucl refrigerat pariter 

& madeiat*Quod autc ciufmodi intemperies 

ab aequaJibus eodifteii>quodinomnibusfntcnv 

peranto' afFed:i corporis partibus apqualiter no 

infint:iddareIiquet»Ergoquisfi[t omnis fnapqua 

lis intcmperaturaegenerandaE modus,fn propo 

fito UheHo ftatutum cft excqui • Admonedi autc 

{umus, quo darior nobis omnis difputatf o fit, dc 

omnibus corporfs particutfs» prfncipfo amaxi:s 

infs fumpto,quac (cflfcct ne vulgo qufdclunt iga 


Fo* Ixvi 
notae *Si quidem nianiis,& pedes, & uelrem, 8c 
thorace,& caput nemo eft qui ignorat» Diuida Diuifio partf 
mus aute earu rurfus unamquaqj in proximas 5 maioru in 
fui^quse Tr^oa-BxH grcece dkutur ^paruculas. Ver Cbiproidas» 
bi graria^crus in foemur^tibmjS^pedcmJtem to 
lum brachium,in brachium, a2bi£um,& fumma 
manu.lam nianus iplius particulsc funr,uola5& 
cius pars auerla, ^iT<xKc^7r < ov grseci uocant3& digi 
tu Digitoru uero particulae uinr^ofTajCartilagOjli* 
gamentu, artcria, uena, mebrana, caro, tendo, iin 
guis,cuus,adeps*Has aute diuiiiilc in aJia (pern 
Ko eft.Sed ffit fimilar€S,ac pritrra?. exccptis tame 
artcrrjs er ucnis^Hacnaq^ cxfibris &nicbran!s fuj /irterias , & 
condit^jiielutiin tradadse diiredionis ratioeeft uetias panes 
traditu^Q^ictia coplura cflc Ipaaa iter fpfes pri ee copofitas 
masj&fimilaresparticulasjatcpijsetia plura ma Vacuafpatia 
iorac^inter ip&s inftrumetales, &copofiras, ali:? inter lingulas 
qua ueroetinunaqualibetilmilariparticulasuelu corporis psr 
tiofie aitcc]^,ha?cquo(^ ola in i>,qu2e de admi tes Jrercedere 
niftradis dillccfliotib^ (cripfimuSjfunt^'dita.Ac Quoru infer 
quaemoIliaquideluntcorpora,ca quonia fihi in poiita ipatia 
uiceincubutjUerpofita Ipaiialaterc coij;?edu faci no cernacur, 
ut.Quae dura ficca<^ (utjn rjs cetn cre fpm'^ Iket^ 
ficut! odiu cauemulas. Corinet hae nataliter mu! 
tu i (eie humoris^hui^qp albi Jn id coparad ut ofla 
nutriat^Quae icuteforamia (utjea^q ratioefiattt 
ijs quae de tep erarisltls precepim Vft di<ftu* At<^ 

' R fj hsec 

haec monuifletseccllanif erai datitafis caofe eor5 

quse a nobis dcinctps funt dicenda. De iiiseqiiali 

uero intempcrie nunc agedum jtii qua?na eius m 

. ' tura Gi, to quot eP gcoeradas modi.Ergo qi". lo 

omnibus partkuliss corporis quod fliixiooe €it 

affe^fiuj unica temperies non fir,pnus eft didjjoi. 

Verum id cooiune omnis inteperanienti inxqua 

lis eft. Differedae eius,ip{am corporum affefto/ 

Aliter fimpli rum fequumiiniatud* quum aliierfimpkxcaro 

cecarne^Ali^ aliter uniuerfus mafculus impari tcmperamenfo 

ter uniuerfu fit affedus* Quippe calida fluxiojubi in mufciilu 

mufculu inae procubuic^primummaioresarteriXjUenjeqjop^ 

quali intcped' plentur, ac diftendutun Ab fjs minores* Atcp m 

€ affedu effe* res proccdit, donec ad minimas fit peruentum. la 

Calidumreu fjs,ubiuaknterimpa(fb fluxioeft, necadhuc \U 

ma queadmo ftitur jpartim eius per ipiarum ora, partim per tu 

dum mufculi nicas, ueluti colatum foras tratiCnittitur» Tu uero 

partesiuadat fpaciaiplauacua, qUiCinter pnma funt corpora, 

fluxione impIetunSic omnia ab humore, omnicp 

ex parte incalefcunt, ac perfunduntur* Ea funt , 

neruiJigameta,membrana?,caro ipfa,ante cp haec 

Venas &ar^ arteriae^&uenaz, Quae folicetSCprimac^SC prap* 

terias in pWe ter caeterauario dolore affidSt, Quippe interi^ 

gmone uarie afluxione tum cxcalfiunt,tum diftenduntur^ac 

dolere, diuelluntur ♦ exterius non modo excalfiunt : fed 

eriam premuntur,acdegrauantur*ReKqua2 par^ 

tfculae aliae comprimcdo folii ^ uel jncalefccndo. 

zUx utrocp gencrc laborai» A ppeliaturcj morb^ 
ipfe PhlegfiionsE* Eft aute insequidis intcperies 
muicuhiemeteniniiam qui ineo eit faiiguisJs 
fecum cxcalfadt prirrmm quidem ac maxime ar^ 
icriarum, & uenaruni tunicas.Mox uero omnia 
quseextra has iunc,quibus {cHicct drcufunditur* 
I ta duorij alceitJm necefle cft lequi, ut fi fluxio ui^ 
ceritj corruptio fequatm uicfroru corporum. fo 
fluxio fft uiAa: ue mulculi zd naturalem ftatum re 
deant.Eiloigilurprius uida fluxio (re(5tiiis eni Vicfta fiuxio 
ameiionbusindpifur) Duplexhicinddit ctira* ne-jqua^dein 
tion?s gaius^quod uel digeretur quidquid humo de curatio^ 
risinparticulamprocubuity uelconcoquet, Ve^ Djgeftfonei 
ffum digeilio optanda maxime curatio efl» Coiya phlegmone 
cocflionemhsec duo neceflario fequucur* puris ge maxieoptada 
neratio, 8CeiusjnaIiquodfpatiumabfceiIto,Abs» elTe curatione 
fcedit aliquado in capacitatii quae propfquae funt, Cococl ione 
£ummaxima,tumminim€ raometaneam. Quod phlegmonis 
fane abfceffion^ gen^ opamu efi^Alias in no moi^ duo fequi* 
mentaneamquidem^nontame maxima» Interim Spatiorii in 
in maxima,non tamc nonmomentanea.Acquae quceabicedtt 
inuentriculum incidunt abfccffionij, opcima efl: uaria genera, 
quas in. iinu cius intcmum abit» In quem etiam ple Abiceflionu 
tiicp feaperiunt»MaIauero quae fiib peritoneum, quajmelior 
Pari modo in fjs quac circa cere brii exiftut, bona fit qux deteri 
eft qiiae in priores eius uctriculos abicedit.MaIa or, 
quaefiibinuolucradusjtemquae in poftieueius 

R irj. uemre 

uctrein £ redpicQoi nero circa coftas abfcefP 

coHigoituf:hj irtcapadtaies efunipunt pedoris, 

Ac mnkylorum quidan abfceObs fubcurcm.iilf 

cem u^ro 1« artenas 5l uaias, quas in fc cond* 

nerjtjue! in nnembranam qua operimitup', quae 

Si Uifta pars ipfis prc cute ed» At fi uidae a fluxiojie panfi? 

a tiuxioiKCt» cula:fuemit,m tsintaxiis deueuient inteperfeni^uo 

detum earum pereat adio^tuni ipise fpatiocor 

Dolor quan tusTiparitui% Porro definent tum primum dok«» 

do dciinat* rt% cjuum rnuEatrici quiditaii fuerint adfimilat^e. 

Quado dole Non eoini quum miitaia pajticiilarri temperies 

ani corpoia* iani elt,fiu€ Cut; iic loquar; in iplbmutatumefle, 

do!ent<» fed dum mHtantur,ijoe in ip& mutario 

Hippocrates m. Quemadmodum mirys dmit Hippocrates* 

Du alteralcit ac corrSpitor naturatdolorcs flot* 

A^taatur autem,ac corrumpitur cuiufqj na^ 

twrd^qim uc! calefitsuel frigefit, uel ficcarur,uel 

hnmdiuud eius unttas dilloluitur Jn fjs quide 

intemper amentis qu3? in^^qualia funt,ex calefsci 

endo,uel cx frigefaciendo* Quippe quum effi^ 

caciffimge qoalitatcs hsefint.Seaindoloco tGc^ 

cajido,ue! humcclandOtEx eiiiriendo uero uelfi 

tiendOjdcrlcicnte hic humidajillic ficca fobftatia* 

Ek uulnerando,& erodendo, & tendedo, & prc 

niendo,6(^ conuel|endo:unitatc ip6, folueda.Br^ 

gofl calor &nguinis in particula,quaephIcgmonc 



^ Fo. ixvlij* 

Iaborat,ni!tis eftt tu qui sn toto animalis eft cot 
pore mcdiocriter attepcratus: no fBdk una ca af 
EiSt^ particala caicffc» Gn ud ille fmiet uehemerf 
tius, uel quiper totuin ^argitur aiiimal,bilfoius 
eftulbco totus ad calorem uertitunMulf.o uero 
magis ficubi ambo concurrunt,ut SC qui in plile 
gmone habetur admodu calidus fit,B<^ qui in to^ 
to cfh anfmatite biliofus. Porro calefit primu qiii In phlegmo^ 
in arterijs cft (anguiSsquod icilicctis tum natura ne quf*. (an^ 
calidior,tum uero magis fpiricuofus fiLpoftbuc guispnmum 
uero etiam qui in uenis eft, Quod C in propiqua calefiai-,qius 
uifceri,cui plurim^ Ct fanguiSjobieHaphlegmoe dtinceps^ 
particula fuerjt:ia!n cekrius cumhoc unioerfus 
qui in animali eft finguis calorc affkitur» Vnocp 
uerbo,quidquid ec facili alterabile eft^aut cali# Quid dtius» 
dumnatura:id a quouis calefaciente primum ex &qui'd tardi 
calfit.Nonfecus&abeoquod fr^efacit, quids^ us alteret'tu 
quid facilc alteratu eft, uel natura frigidumtid generatimtii 
primum refrigcramr. Ac promptus quidem ad membratim* 
alterandu (piritus cft. Vtpotc extcnuiflurus co 
ftans partibus.CalidifSma naturscmcritoeft fla 
ua biIis.At fr^diffima pituita eft. Reliquorum 
humorum , fanguis poft flauam bilcm maximc 
cft caLdus ,Ccut n^a bilis poft pituitam eft fri 
gida» Quinctiam altcratur flaua bilis leuimo» 
meiito » ex guouis in eam agcntc ♦ Nigra jegre 

R iii)^ akaa&c* 

alterafcir Jis fumma quidquid tmuiu dl pamu,id 

Alteratiorus Ita neceffe eil muldferise phlegTnois akerationes 

' uar/etates in incidanr ,propterea quod mult iferiam afteda foiit 

phiegraonis, corpora* Principjo naq^ fuccus qui phl^monc 

€x qtiinc^ ge«f excitar.magfs rainuCie calidus Adadc fucd pu^? 

neribus accis? trefadjo^proipiiusiiatura refpondst* non roini^ 

dere» muin certe prout is mag/s miaufue cE* impadus* 

Qaippe quae p etfpmtu careiii;, celeri^ putrelcHS^ 

iielud 5C ioextc^is dicddk otiibus* Caneru qoii 

calida t.tniperie frnit & liurmdaj.tuni utic^ potifli 

mii feB ipfa phkgmooelaborans pasoGila, oel 

prope yel lorige fita ejftj a multi faoguiris uiken 

hasdoins q$ faiiguis oe! biKofus eit,uel melScholi 

ciivVi^^ P^tuitoius, uel foidtuoliiS» Atcp h^c onia 

mzgis minm i^* Quare necefleeflrmulfiforrncs 

fierl alceratfones, fiue alterum alten fit coHatu, fiue 

In corpore sdem fibi«Fiunt hse omiies insequales corporis in-» 

quod phlegi* temperi^^niaximequideniinfiammato eoqui in 

tn5€ laboret, phlegmoneeftfitiguine^dcindeeoquiinuiicerii* 

quid maxime bus habec 8c corde* Atcp huius maxime eo qui T 

inflammetur, finiftro eius finu cft, In queCficut in opcre de ufur 

quid ddnde* pandismanudillediombuseftdidu)fiuiuo etia 

animante, nec adhuc febre tentato, dimittere digi 

tum uelis:uehementi(limii deprehendes calorem* 

Quo magis u eriCmile eft,ubi totum corpus prae 

ter natura icaleicit; huc maxime finu ad fummu 


pemenire caloris» Quippequu tetniiffiraS roax 
imccp ^irjtuofijm fangume habeat, ac nioueat 
perpetuo^Cseteru in febribus id genus onibus, 
calefitquide fanguis aliquado uniuerfuSjquicucp 
no naturalem iliu calore, qui ex humoris putref 
centiaeil obortuSjCocoepic» Non tatne aut arte 
rxarum, uenaru ue tunic^,aut aliud uGum circu 
iacentium corporuniL,prorius ism temperamen 
tum fuu mutauit^ied adhuc niuratur atc^ altera 
t facalclccSsiiueCut fic loqiiar; calefies,Quod 15 
giore tepore hoc patir, etiam uincetur aliquado, 
prorfus c^ luiitabfturata m no amplius calefiat, 
ied iam fit prseter natura calefa<fhmiPorro ter^ Termin' alte 
min^ mutatfonis ef^, cuiusc^ particolae fundHs? rationis quis 
onis lefio* Ad qucm ulc^ terminu omnis alteraj* ftatuendus* 
tionis iatitudo: via efl: in id c|uod prseter mtui^ 
ram ell^ veluti mixtum comune <» ac medium 
qufddam cx cofrariis vrrifc^ copomu , ipib m-^ 
turali prorius affecfluj 8C eo qui iam plane eii 
prseter natara» Eigo toto hoc tepore corpus in Dolons ihfc 
calelcenst pro modo alrerationis etiam ad portis* bn fpmivm^ 
onem iertnt dolorem, Quum vero omnes cor«s SCcPmivm^ 
poris folidse particulse excalfadae ad abiolutioj* 
nem iam (uia duimodi febrem Hecflicarn graed 
vocanc» ceu non amplius iam in humonbus bC 
rpirkiJ: (cd in corponbus ijs quse habitus ratio 
ncm habctsConiprchenfem^HcCC doions eft; ex 

S pers. 

Kidolefcerisei pers» putant cp qui ea febridcant^oninino (e fe 
he^fKds cau& brc carercneq^ enim fentiunt eius 
nibus fcilicet eorum partibus seque percalfa<5lis» 
Sed &couenic de r]s,incer naturalis (cientiae pro 
Doforis iDfcfeilbres in ijs quae de ienfibus produnt. Nec^ 
bribuscaufi» enim citra alteratione efl (enluSjne<^in fjs qu^ 
iam ad perfedrione (unt alterata, dolor Jtaq^ etSI 
faedicae febres omnes , fine dolore funtuu 
nec fenfu ab his qLii ipfis Iaborat,percept^*No 
cnim ex eorum particutis^hajc agit harc patitur» 
quufn omnes inter fe iam (imiles fint reddica? » 
Hypophora ac vnicam habeant coientiente teperiem* Quod 
& iblutio* fi alia earij calidiorenisalia frigidior:at certe ea* 
tenus efl: fr^idior,ut iiidna tiihil ofFendaf^AIi*^ 
oqui fic (cilicet partes qux pro naairx modofc 
habenttmutuo (e ofFenderet^vtpote qui (ic (alte 
tempcramentis diiHdeant.Caro nacp calidapar* 
Insequalitas ticula ell:, os fr^idu* Cxterum tam haru partiu, 
teperamlti in ^ reliquarii omniu indolens insequalitas eft,mo 
fanis indoles di cxceffus merito* Sic nanque nec aer qui nos 
cfl:. ambitjprius ofFendit: quam ad immodicu calo 

rem frigusue eft immutatus,Cuius alioqui qux 
m medio fmt dfferentfas,tametii numerofas,ac 
manifeftu excefllim ioter fe habentes, eitra nox 
Hlppo.dictu am femmus& ip ergo fortaile nec illud duri^ 
eteiufde non dfcs videatur,quod Hippocrates alicubiaitrOm 
nullapros* „ n!morbu vlcus effe.Qiiippe vkus vnitatis eft 
babilitas* diuifio* 

Fo» Ixx. 

diuifioJmmocJicus Vero caJot ac frig^proxime 
accedunt, vi vnitate (bluant . plurimus quide ca 
lor,du fegregat ac diuidit {ubftatiae cSunuiiate, 
fummu vero frigus^tu ftipando tiiintrorfus pa 
riter irudedo,quacdani cxprimit,quaeda quadat» 
Atc^ huc quifpiam immodici caloris ac frigoris 
terminu ftatucns^fortaflTe n5 incomode fcntiat ♦ 
Scu vero^is fiuealius immodici excefTus termitf Omnefinme 
nus efljCerte cofSflere omne immoderatu excef diciJ exceflfu 
fum inhabitudine ad aliquid,ia iiquet.Non eni adaliquidee^ 
pari radone a calidis ftigidis cj amcit omne cor 
pus.lnde q^fit ut aliqua animaliu couenietes in^ Animalium 
ter fe fuccos habeant,aliqua no fblu non coueni quairda coue 
entesjfed etia qui fe mutuo corrupat, veluti ho nientes^qua: 
mo ztcp vipera,quorum utriufcp faliua alterieft dam contrari 
pemities * Ita vti<^ & fcorpiu necaueris , fiieiu^ os inter fe fiic 
ncis illi infpueris, At non homo homine morfu cos habere* 
imcfemit,nec uipcra uiperam, nec afpis afpide, 
Siquidem quod fimile eft:id congruu amicu<^ 
eft* quod cotrariu eft, inimicu ac lyoxm. Auget 
enl quidque ac nutrita /imiIib',periraitaccorm 
pit a diflimilib^Jtai^etiafanitaiis tutela pcr Cmi 
lia perficitur,morboru fublatioper cotaria^Veru 
de ijs ali^eft fermo Hedica uero febre quae ia Omne febre 
habitucorporis occi!pauit,minie(etit quiea labo praeterhedi:? 
rat.Reliquarri febriu nuUae quacno a laborateie ce a laborate 
riac Jed aliar xnagiS chx min^ aegrot^ii fut graues, lentiri ♦ 

S i]. Sunt 

Sunt cx 1)8 S^ qaac rigore ingefant , fit cnim id 
quocp iypmtoma, velud alia multa , ab iiiaequali 
intcmperie. Rationem tame generandi eius in ^ 
pofito libro traderc non cft , priuf^ dc natura 
libus facultatibus demoftratum fuerit,quot hae 
qualeiq^ iint,tum quid agere quaecp fit nata*Vc 
ru in libris de fymptomatii cauiis,de onibus a«t 
getur, Sed reuertor ad insequalis intemperameti 
differerias, Nam quemadmodii ex phlegmone 
febris nalcatur» tum quod febris omnis ac phle 
gmone omnis,prceter hecfHcas^ex morbis fint, 
quibus insequ^s it intemperies:didu iam eft* 
Insequalis in Porro accendi febre 8<rcitra phlegmone ex folis 
tep eramenti humoribus putrelcenribus licet» Neq^ enim ea 
generandi ua Iblum que inculcata fiint, bC peripiratu prohibi* 
ria; rariones* ca, putrelcunt. veru celeriter ea^axime <^.Ca?te 
ru putrcfcunt & alia muka,quae putredini funt 
opportuna. Dicetur vero de horii opportunita 
te alio loco, lam alio quoc^ gencre inaequalis ori 
ri intemperies in toto corpore potefb modo fu* 
liginofo vapore detento» modo excrcitationibus 
bC plulculis laboribus calorc adaucflo, modo ab 
ira,qua fanguis immoderati^ feruet*modo ex de 
uftione quauis extema» incalefcit* Porro qd' eria 
in his oib^ febrib^,no (ecus ^ in phlegmonis (ii* 
pra eft didu , tum pro uiribus effedricis caufa?, 
tu^ corporis ipfius affe(fiu,alijmagis febricitet, 

alrj miniis^ 

Fo» Ixxu 

alfj minusjalij haud quaq^, apertum effe arbitror» 
Acque vero et quod inteperies ip& nonuqp fpiri^ 
tuofatantuinuadic fubilantia, nonnu^ ipfbs eua 
(uccos,daruid quoc^ reor, Sednecminusillud, 
quod omnibus huiufmodi febribus Ctraxerint^ 
hedica ruperueniet. lam cp (ermo nofter ^pemo 
dum oftedit, insequale hanc inteperie aliquado ex 
calida,frigida ve (ubfl:atia,qusE in panicula aliqua 
influat, accidere , velutiin his fiebat^quos phle ss 
gmonse infeflrat ♦Sepe no fta.i&d ipia corporis tem Cor pons te a* 
perieinqualitatemutata^cumquodalterantirTea, peries quado 
quaedamortuhabeantab ipfocorpore^quaedam estrinfecuSjCt 
extrinfcc^, Vtiq^ quu ex putredine tantu aliqua, vcl quando inter 
phlegmoneexcicaturfebris,abipfbcorpore*quu ne alcerctur* 
ab vfboe vel exercitatioe,extrin(ec'' ^Dicetur aute 
ct de his fufius in morboru caufis ♦ Tan^ aute ex 
dsuiiioe accedit febris ,aIterato yfideiicet corporis 
teperamento: itide nonulii iepe ex fr^ore refrige » 
rati toto corpore vehemerer iut ♦ aliqui vero etiam 
perierunt Jam quod hi oes etia doleat^ne id quidc 
latet» Porro dolent et quiex rigorc ingeti vehemen 
ter perfr]^erad, celeriter fefe excalfacere propera ^* 
runt^multi cp eorii quii fubito ac fimul manus igni 
admoueriit,ingente circa vnguium radice fentiunt^ 
dolore* Et quil^ quu ta lucule ter videat inteperie 
inarquale doloris efle caufam : eria de intemis do* 
loribus dubitct,aut miretur, quopado citra phle* 

S ii). gmonc 

gmone ^luoincie uellaxiore mteftino^cjuod colon 

graeci uoear, ud dendbuSjUcl alia quauis pardcula 

homines dofeatCNam nec^ taliuuUu tnirabileefi:, 

necqueadmodu {imuIrigeantetfcbricifenE a^gro 

Cur a!iquii?5s tandualiqui Quippefi pitulrofus (uccus quifri s^ 

, mul rigeanr, giduse(l,quecp Praxagoras uitreumappellatset 

ei: febricitent, amara bilis cpaecalfda eft, ^ixmA abundent, ac per 

ienObif ia mebra moueantur: nihil miri eft utrucp 3 

aibate pari modo (enriri ♦ Nec^ enim fi holem f ub 

foleferuido ftatuasjecaquailli frgidainfadas/ierl 

poteft^ut no iinul eta fole calorem ,ec ab aqua frias 

gos itxAt. Veru hcK cafu abo extrinfecus liit, nec 

Inhcpialifcur paruis poreionibus incidirt. In febribus quas hcpi 

fr%^ et calor alos uocat, tuab interno^tumbxiguis portioibus* 

fimul feuanL eo «^uniuerC corpus ambo feniiremdetur» Qu5 

eni tenmfflmis portiuculis afperfu per corpus tuni 

calidu {k to frigidu: nuUa (enfile alterius portiucu^ 

lara itaparua de(umas,i q no alteru iitcopradicfu, 

In acceffionu Infpiatameacceflionis inuafione,aIiqui febrlcita« 

inuafio€ febri tiii tum rigent, tS uero febricitatjtu ambo fentrat, 

citatefaliquos fegus imodicii, etcaloreiina .Vero no eode loco. 

frig^etcalore Qaippequu pofltntqua^excalfact^ {xm partes, 

flmiil fedre, oianifeft e a r e frigeratis di(cernere«Na m uus et k\ 

ip(5s uSreribuscaloreienriut.Inexternis pardbus 

In Lipyrijs uniuarfis frigiis.Tales perpetuo febreslut et qus:: 

ticriic^ perpe graece Lipyriaeuocatur.Praeterea quoddaardetiS 

tuo ita iit \ ac^ febriS pemicioiu gen^. Quod fgit in his maiorib^ 

ceflioibus (e*^ portionibus 


portioib^ accidit,!ioc in hepialis cotingit mmuiis^ 
Injequalis naq^ el t et haru febriii iteperics/ed iif c 
min9 rcliqiiam oim. exceptis tn hedicis . C^uietia Aliqnos rigc 
rjs qai riaent,nec tamefebricitatjinaequaletepera renec tamen 
mentu eil, Rarutamecl]; id fymptoma, Cxteru febricitare Ra 
fnddit tummulimbus, tum quibufda aliquacfo ui rumcjid* 
ris,Dabct autoottio defes pr^eccffilTe uita.autcer 
te dfaorii copia longiorc fpaoo hoiupiifle^ex qui*^ 
bus tard is/rigidus^crudus, &pituitofus nalcac 
(iiccus. quale fcilicetPraxagoras uitreu exifiiimat, 
Porro antiquitus nemo (ut uidec ) ita f£x affcdus^ Symptoa pf i 
utqui nec adeoocioli,necin uidus iaturiiate ui^ fcisC vt\idet) 
uercjit Jnde q^ fa<flu cfl:,utfcnplcrint atiquimci? ignotij*et cur 
dici,rigori fci^rem nccedario iuperuenircVervr^f 
tamc tum nos ipfi, tum alij iunioru mcdicoru no 
paud^icpcaumero uidimus rigore, que nulia fe # 
cuta fit fcbris-Porro copoitcxhac inteperie,ct ea 
qtisefcbridtatiu efl:,HepiaIus . appello ita febre Hcpialos 
illam,cai ambofempcr accidunt» Atin quarigor quse vocet 
qutdepraeccdit^fcbris fequit ucluf iin teriianis SL 
quartanis hanchepialLi no VocoJtaex duplici in^ 
qualiititeperichepiaitiscoDonit Erxa afi^^icbres 
praetcr hedicas fcre ocs» Simiii gcnere qui parti 
ciilac alicuius cu tumorc raorbl fuot^hi quocp oes 
pcrldeac phlcgmon^, cum intcperametoinarqua 
!i confiftut.Cacer^ErifipcIas, CarbiiciiI^Herpcs 
TumorPhagcdcna^ Gagrena. Quippc comune 

fjs omiiibus 

fjs olb' cd^vt ex fluxioc huoru fint orta^Diflidet 
in eo quod alfj cx pituiiofb,airjex biliG(o,YeIniela 
cholico (ucco, alfj ex fa^uinc vel cahdo, Yel tenui, 
vel buHientCjYel frigido, vel cra(Ib,Yel alio quopia 
generc affecto fiant.DedarabitureniaboIocode 
horu mebratim differentia diligeter, Quod ad pro 
poCtam difceptatione pertinet, hoc tantij dixi^Tc 
abundecftjquod qualifcii^ eft fluxio,eadem ra^ 
tione,queqp praedicfloru aff eduu creat,qua prius 
cx calida et fanguinea phle^monengigni moftra^ 
uimus.Sed non minus ctiafimilariu, ac fimpliciu, 
primorii cp in i)s corporu fingula,{ic a fluxioe affe 
<fla,ad inaequalem inteperie dcueniet» Caeteru ex 
trinfecus pro reumatis ratione calefa<fla,refrigeif 
rata,ficcata, Yel humed:ata. penitus et in profudo 
nondu fimiliter affe(fta*Quod fi totaper tota mu* 
f ata alterata q^ (int t fiut quide illico a dolore libera, 
In diffidli tamc ffc coftituta fiint ftatu ♦ Hec prseno 
uiflehis quiopus de medicameiis fut percepturi, 
ct poft id medendi methodum,abunde mihi (atis 
Yidctur. ♦:. ,*, 

Finis Tertij de Temperamentis 
Thoma Linacro Anplo 
Interprete. ^ 

Folio.Pagia^Verfu. Lege. Folio Pagia, VerCi ^Lege* 





111]» J] 
iii]. 1] 

Prio.fcda^vii). huidualiqd' 
I. rj, xviij, Ita (^ 

vlci. papaueris 
XI], ea orado 
sdijt]. lore, opponem 
xxi, eode corpore co 
xxiii]. Ergo ee quide 
xxi* hacpotuerunt 
iitf. affidue ie<flatur 
xiiij. teperatii^ Atcg 
rxvi. ccrcoleio 
V. . iii eo cali, 
Vf], porro indicare 
xi]. nihil humedi in. 
xiii]. talis efl: naturae 
xviij.appareret, & 
xix. vtrincppo. 
xxv.humidius efl: 
xix. invna eadecpre 
XX. inteperature c5 
xvirj. affiduelargir 
X. teperies^q^ue 


VJ. 1. 

vi* L 
vi. i. 
vi. j]. 
vfj. i]. 
virj. j. 
\iq, L 

IX. i. iiij. articulorii cp 

X ► i ♦ X ,eni au . ide e,aut 

xi* i.^idocp 

xi.. i.^coriicorporu 

xv.uelfJDeae Cto 
xxii]. Generevero 
iiij. &riam dicantur 
xxifj.aliquo ea {u» 
xvi. enim alioruuel xii].noucia 
viiy ad humidoru 
XX. ficcitatisimagi» 
vi efficere^ut 
xiiij, rac crgo opor. 
xviii.fpebus notant 
i. modo aialiu ec* 
vi]. in omm fpeac 
xix ta<fiu tame ian 
iij. comingit 
xxi]' . i . xxi. pertinent 
xxij. 1] . xirj.alcera qua? 

XI. 1. 

xi. i], 
xi. i]» 
xi]. i. 
xij. ij* 
xvi. fj. 
xVii], fj 
xix. i] 
XX. i. 
XX. i. 

XX. f]. 

XX. i], 

xxi» i]» 
XXI]. i. 

d quae teperaca res e diffimile xxij ♦ ij» xifj cft hmdiet ficci 

FoEoPaoia^Verlo Xcge* 
xxt} ij^ xxii {}, indimcp 
^3di}4^ ^* irieodemfimt, 
KKiij^i vi| inaniiiidmrii 
xxii| . i ix * dciiiortiii 
3£ Ki!]* i X V i] . mortua coEata 
%xirjj]. ix. eil tepet'adffia 
XX J]* i j * xii j, necciiiafc^ » 
n xii] ♦ 1] * xix. rii ad ugiie ap« 
-xxxii} , i » ix . mocib^ opdmis 
X xii i]» i xiiil ,mg£QS^ cii ixi * 
xxiiq.i), vi} paritiirinfans 
xsv * fj» !♦ cofirnient* 
^vi i * vi% ei f^uificatio 
sxvi*i|* XV* exincodisd* 
xxvu i)* xxvi]* ohire qtieant 
xxvii»ij* Kx» cxperdajanal, 
XKVT} * i]* xxii] ♦ eft iftorii fi ^ 
% %vii)* i * ifj.difquifido^e5da, 
3sxvir]ji» xvii)* liore putant 
Kxvii) » i* xxii]» fint.S!n de 
xxvirj^ij, XX), defciuiflrea 
XXX ♦ i# i» interpretabor» 
XXX* fj» xi» &^mediocrite« 
XXX, rj» XX ♦ tumcalorem« 
xx^i, V» perat^taduaf 
xxxi^i]. ix« eftiudex 
Kxxi^i] . XXV « £t dura£^» nuL 

FolioPagla» Verfu *Lege, 

xxK!] ; !♦ xviij^habet offium 
xmii»!> xi]» teperametafe» 

xKm-), fj* xvi ♦ qui pigues fu* 

xxxiirjA, xxi]* vcn^ extra ie 
jcxKiii]» i, xxvi« Nifi ficubi 
xxxiiij.i* vlii, vicaidiilgetior 
XXXV* i]. ix» tata e|i: (accedcs 
xxxvi, i]» i. Siquidenecex 
xxxvfj» 1] V* tepore copli» 
XXX vi]* i> viij» quod hic qua 
mm fpiilatum eft, tantum 
xxxvi]j]* xxfj* Rufus fieuti 
KKXvi^» i« iij« protinus ' 
XKX%'iii * ij» xvif],& imbecillos 
xxxix^ixxvf]* nonperuenit 
^xxix*f|» vi* acalorepro 
xxxix* i]* vif]« cu fenefcut, a 
xxxix* !]♦ xxi* corp^ in ali]s 
xxxix* i]* xxi], eile in alf]s 
xxxix*i]. xxiifj^finthijidofes 
xf* i, xi.alfjs vara^ArtU'. 
xl. i. xiii]» fcoptula? ilJis 
xL i, XV* nudaecp plane 
xl. i, xvij.Quatopereaute 
xli, i» !]♦ ^edetevero 
xl*'« i, xii]*cunt,umidicg 

IL u \L necvn^ 
lu L vij. fi illud mutee 
hii),u xxi. Scqusc 
liii)» ij* X* fi certoru me* 
liiij, i), xiii), cu certisacce» 
Iiiij»f|» XX» eacpvi 
Iv» !♦ ff, adferat 
Iy* i» itj» ciendoiuuet 
Iv» 1 vi. [alijsteporeco, 
Ivi* i], vi]* noneominus 
Ivff. i. !]• ineuquicc^ 
Ivrj» !♦ XX» qucipfa, 
Ivii> f]V xvifj. qut ratioe fb , 
4X1. !♦ XV calorequaam 
I^fn-. !. xvii), casmaifeftecale. 
tdij. i, iii^. Imotantum in 
Ixii). i« V. a perfudedo e 
Ixirj. i» xxiir|.ad(iima cor» 
Ixif]* i. XX vi, indidu vero 
acdocumentum quodfrigidu 
Ixii), i]» xxr]» cx acddcnti 
Ixiii] . ij, X vi, ve admotu ve* 
Ixfi!]. rj. xvi]» homin^ potc^ 
ftate calidum 

Impreirum apud pr^clarami Cantabrigiam per 

loannern Sfberch, Anno. M, D. X XI. 

xh'. L XV» fiunr*Iidem 
xli* !]♦ vi]. abextemoca* 
lore attract' ^diit no pot ex 
xlfj. i]. 1]« autehicruriu 
xli]. !]♦ ii). aliude cofluat 
xlirj.i* vlti. perueniret 
xli t), i} XX hacc quod vbi 
xliii]» L xVij. pcrpedetibus 
xlv. ij» xx«]4 teftae eft adli 
mKis^Iam malacoftaca 
xlvi.i» XV. Adeumodu. 
xlvi.i. vlti Cajterucii id 
xlvi]«i]'* xxi. tuadlibrosde 
medicameds,tuad medendi 
xlvii]\ij* xr]\ indicctur,qd' 
xlix»r|» L in^nemutato 
xlix»i]» iii]. facileaccedunC 
h U vrj. tameiamfied 
I. i, xif] tem aliasjmo* 
L i) iir), turignisni, 
li» L i]. tcorp^vnaqualibet 
li. i* if), tatu,idquod. 
li. i- iix) necipfumlioc 
li* i* Y. abipfomutat 

or from the . libr : j_. 

n. tielow mst not fip 




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